Chapter 2 - Memory - Keywords

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  • Created by: ImanB
  • Created on: 07-04-16 20:31
Coding
The format in which information is stored in the various memory stores
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Capacity
The amount of information that can be held in memory
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Duration
The length of time information can be held in memory
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Short term memory (STM)
The limited capacity memory store. Coding is mainly acoustic (sounds) and caoacity is between 5 and 9 items on average, duration is between 18 and 30 seconds
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Long term memory (LTM)
The permanent memory store. Coding is mainly semantic (meaning) it has unlimited capacity and can store memories for up to a lifetime
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Multi-store model (MSM)
A representation of how memory works in terms of three stores called sensory register, short term memory and long term memory. It also describes how information is transferred from one store to another, how it is remembered and how it is forgotten
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Sensory register
Memory stores for each of our five senses e.g. vision (iconic store) and hearing (echoic store). Coding in the iconic sensory register is visual and in echoic, acoustic storage. Capacity of the sensory registers is huge but duration is small (1/2 s)
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Episodic memory
A long term memory store for personal events. It includes memories of when events occurred and of people, objects and behaviours involved. Memories from this store have to be retrieved consciously and with effort
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Semantic memory
A long term memory store for our knowledge of the world. This includes facts and our knowledge of what words and concepts mean. These memories usually also need to be recalled deliberately
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Procedural memory
A long term memory store for our knowledge of how to do thing. This includes our memories of learned skills . We usually recall these memories without making a conscious or deliberate effort
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Working memory model (WMM)
A representation of short term memory. It suggests that STM is a dynamic processor of different types of information using sub units coordinated by a central decision making system
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Central Executive (CE)
The component of the WMM that co-ordinates the activities of the three subsystems in memory. It also allocates processing resources to those activities
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Phonological loop (LP)
The component of the WMM that processes information in terms of sound. This includes both written and spoken material. It's divided into the phonological store and the articulatory process
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Visuo-spatial sketchpad (VSS)
The component of the WMM that processes visual and spatial information in a mental space called our "inner eye"
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Episodic buffer
The component of the WMM that brings together material from the other sub-systems into a single memory rather than separate strands. It also provides a bridge betweem working memory and long term memory
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Interference
Forgetting because one memory blocks another cauing both or one memory to become distorted or forgotten
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Proactive interference
Forgetting occurs when older memories already stored disrupt the recall of newer memories. The degree of forgetting is greater when the memories are similar
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Retroactive interference
Forgetting occurs when newer memories disrupt the recall of older memories already stored/. The degree of forgetting is greater when the memories are similar
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Retrieval failure
A form of forgetting. It occurs when we done have the necessary cues to access memory. The memory is available but not accessible unless a suitable cue is provided
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Cue
Trigger of information allowing access to a memory. Cues may be meaningful or may be indirectly linked due to encoding at time of learning. For example, cues may be external (environmental context) or internal (mood or degree of drunkness)
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Eyewitness testimony (EWT)
Ability of people to remember details of event such as accidents or crimes which they themselves observed. Accuracy of EWT can be affected by factors such as misleading information, leading questions and anxiety
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Misleading information
Incorrect information given to the eyewitness usually after the event (hence often called post-event information). It can take many forms such as leading questions and post event discussion between co-witnesses and/or other people
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Leading questions
Questions which because of the way they are phrased suggest certain answers. For example, "Was the knife in the accused's left hand?" suggesting the answer is left hand.
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Post event discussion (PED)
Occurs when there is more than one witness to an event. Witnesses may discuss what they have seen with co-witnesses or with other people. This may influence the accuracy of each witness' recall of events
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Anxiety
A state of emotional and physical arousal. The emotions include having worried thoughts and feelings of tension. Physical changes include an increased heart rate and sweatiness considered normal reaction but affects accuracy of eyewitness testimony
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Cognitive interview (CI)
AMethod of interviewing eyewitnesses to help retrieve more accurate memories. Uses four main techniques based on psychological principles of human memory - report everything, reinstate the context, reverse the order and change perspective
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Card 2

Front

The amount of information that can be held in memory

Back

Capacity

Card 3

Front

The length of time information can be held in memory

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The limited capacity memory store. Coding is mainly acoustic (sounds) and caoacity is between 5 and 9 items on average, duration is between 18 and 30 seconds

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The permanent memory store. Coding is mainly semantic (meaning) it has unlimited capacity and can store memories for up to a lifetime

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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