CELLULAR CONTROL

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What is a gene?
section of DNA that codes for a polypeptide
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What do genes code for?
amino acid sequence of enzymes/ structural proteins/ channel proteins/ antibodiea
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What is the genetic code?
base sequence that codes for an amino acids sequence
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What is a codon?
set of 3 bases that code for an amino acid
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Outline the steps of protein synthesis
transcription then translation
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What is transcription?
first stage of protein synthesis in which mRNA creates a copy of a gene made from DNA in the nucelus
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Outline the process of transcription
RNA poly attaches to DNA/H bonds break and uncoils/one strand template/RNA poly lines up free floating nucleotides with complementary and joins nucleotides/ RNA poly reforms H and recoils/ RNA poly reaches stop codon/ mRNA leaves nuclear pore
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What is translation?
second stage of protein synthesis in which amino acids are joined by ribosomes to make polypeptide chain
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outline the process of translation
mRNA attaches to ribosome/ tRNA brings amino acids to ribosome/ tRNA with correct anti codon binds to codon/ repeated until stop codon reached/ amino acids join by condensation reactions
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What is a mutation?
a change in the amount or arrangement of genetic material in a cell
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What types of mutations are there?
insertion/ deletion/ substitution/ duplication/ inversion (sequence reversed)
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Which type of mutation is possibly the most harmful?
insertion or deletion can cause frame shift which can completely alter the protein that is coded for/ frame shift/ protein could be completely inactive
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What are the pros of mutations?
bacteria antibiotic resistance?
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What are the cons of mutations?
cystic fibrosis/ proteins don't fold incorrectly, do not work and must be broken down/ higher risk of some cancers
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What is the role of cyclic AMP?
activates proteins by altering their 3D shape- changes active site
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What is an operon?
section of DNA that controls stricture of genes, its elements and sometimes regulatory gene/ protein synthesis can be controlled
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Describe an operon
regulator gene that codes for transcription factor (repressor or activator)/ promotor DNA before structural genes that RNA poly binds to/ operator trans factor bind here/ structural genes code for proteins togetehr
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describe the structure of the lac operon
reg - lacl/ promotor/ operator/ LacZ LacY and Lac A structural genes
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What happenes when lactose is present?
lactose binds to repressor/ repressor changes shape/ cannot bind to operator/ RNA polymerase binds to promotor and begins transcription of enzymes like lactose permease and beta-galactosidase
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What happens when lactose is not present?
repressor binds to operator/ blocks transcription
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What is a body plan?
general structure of an organism
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How is the body plan of an organism controlled?
homeotic genes code for proteins that control development
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what is a Homeobox sequence?
regions of a homeotic gene that code for part of a protein called the homeodomain
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What is a homeodomain?
part of a protein the binds to a specific site on DNA, enables it to work as a transcription factoe
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What is Apoptosis?
programmed cell death
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outline apoptosis
cell produces enzymes that break down parts of cell/ cell shrinks and fragments/ podocytes engulf and digest cell
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Describe the role of apoptosis in the body
removed unwanted structures during growth, involved in development
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What is meant by unambiguous?
each codon only codes for one specific amino acid
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What is meant by degenerate?
each amino acid can be coded for by more than one codon (except 2)
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How is the genetic code universal?
almost all species use the same code
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how is the genetic code 'non overlapping'?
each base is a part of only one codon
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What do genes code for?

Back

amino acid sequence of enzymes/ structural proteins/ channel proteins/ antibodiea

Card 3

Front

What is the genetic code?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a codon?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Outline the steps of protein synthesis

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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