2.1.1 Cell Structure Key Words

Cytoplasm
Gel-like matrix within the cell membrane that contains the cytosol and organelles and is the main site of cellular reactions
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Plasma Membrane
Phospholipid bi-layer that controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell
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Cell Wall
Permeable structure made of cellulose that strengthens and supports the cell
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Nucleus
Membrane-bound organelle that holds DNA and controls cellular functions such as growth. Surrounded by the nuclear envelope
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Nucleolus
Synthesises rRNA in order to build ribosomes and is composed of protein and RNA
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Nuclear Membrane
Double-layered membrane that surrounds the nucleus and separates the nucleoplasm from the cytoplasm
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Ribosome
Membrane-bound organelle that is the centre for protein synthesis. Composed of rRNA
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Lysosome
Membrane-bound organelle that is produced in the Golgi and contains hydrolytic enzymes. Engulfs old organelles and recycles constituent components
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Chromosome
Linear strands of DNA that is in the form of chromatin. Only visible in cellular division
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Chromatin
A complex formed by the addition of histones to DNA
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Endoplasmic Reticulum
Membrane-bound network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm, continuous with the nuclear membrane
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Rough ER
Endoplasmic Reticulum with embedded ribosomes used for the production and transport of proteins
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Smooth ER
Endoplasmic Reticulum responsible for the transportation of molecules and modification of lipids
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Golgi Apparatus
Membrane-bound organelle reponsible for the modification and packaging of proteins for exocytosis
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Cytoskeleton
Filament protein structure that gives the cell its shape and stability and is used in the transport of various molecules by transport proteins
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Microtubule
Filament about 25nm in diameter and is one of the three proteins that make up the cytoskeleton
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Microfilament
Filament about 6nm in diameter and made up of actin
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Intermediate Filament
Filament about 10nm in diameter and made up of a number of different proteins
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Spindle Apparatus
Involved in moving and segregating the chromosomes during nuclear division
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Mitochondrion
Double membrane-bound organelle responsible for the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate
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Chloroplast
Double membrane-bound organelle responsible for photosynthesis
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Vesicle
Membrane- bound organelle responsible for storage and transportation of cellular products
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Centriole
Nine triplets of peripheral microtubules in 9+0 arrangement make up a centriole which is essential in the formation of the spindle apparatus
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Flagellum
Formed of flagellin with the primary responsibility of locomotion
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Cilium
Hair-like projection that can either be motile (for locomotion) or non-motile (for sensory purposes), all have the microtubules in a 9+2 arrangement
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Undulipodium
Motile filamentous extracellular projection of eukaryotic cells with fillaments in a 9+2 arrangement
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Plasmodesma
A narrow thread of cytoplasm that passes through the cell walls of adjacent plant cells and allows transportation and communication between them
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Phospholipid bi-layer that controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell

Back

Plasma Membrane

Card 3

Front

Permeable structure made of cellulose that strengthens and supports the cell

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Membrane-bound organelle that holds DNA and controls cellular functions such as growth. Surrounded by the nuclear envelope

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Synthesises rRNA in order to build ribosomes and is composed of protein and RNA

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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