Chapter 7 - Cellular control

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  • Created by: stef17
  • Created on: 03-05-16 13:39
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  • Chapter 7 - Cellular control
    • Protein synthesis
      • uses mRNA as DNA cannot leave nucleus
      • Transcription
        • 1. DNA helicase breaks H bonds and DNA helix unwinds
        • 2. Free RNA nucleotides pair with the DNA nucleotides (C & G, A & U)
        • 3. RNA polymerase catalyses condensations with the RNA nucleotides
        • 4. A stop codon is reached and the RNA breaks off and enters the cytoplasm through a nuclear pore and arrives at a ribosome
      • Translation
        • 1. Methionine is the start codon
        • Uses tRNA and the anticodons on them
        • 2.Codon is read and the complementary tRNA molecule loaded with an amino acid binds
        • 3. Peptides join together uses coindensation reactions while tRNA breaks away
    • The genetic code
      • 20 different amino acids are coded for in the DNA
      • Almost universal coding
      • Triplet code
      • Reference strand is used for making proteins
    • Mutations
      • Three types: Addition, Deletion and Substitution
      • Sickle cell anaemia
    • Genetic control of protein production
      • Switching genes on and off
      • lac operon
    • Controlling development
      • Homeobox genes
        • Highly conserved
      • Thalidomide
      • Fruitflies
    • Apoptosis
      • Programmed cell death
        • Tails in tadpoles
        • Webs between fingers and toes in embryoes

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