Cells Buzz Words

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Small circular DNA molecules. Contains genes that help cells to function, eg genes for antibiotic resistance
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Compartment in cell containing solution of salts and sugars (cell sap). Water storage and maintenance of turgar within the cell.
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Disc-shaped structures found in cytoplasm. Location where photosynthesis occurs and sugar is produced.
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Location of many chemical reactions. Contains organelles and ribosomes.
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Found in cytoplasm. Location where aeorbic respiration occurs and most of the cell's ATP is produced.
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A single-celled organism
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The name given to the fine structure and detail of a cell and its organelles revealed by an electron microsope
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The name given to a membrane bound compartment with a specific function in animal, plant and fungal cl
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The site of protein synthesis
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Bacterial cell
A microscopic individual cell of a bacterium
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Deoxyribonuteic acid; the chemical that carries the genetic code of an organism and determines all the organism's characteristics
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Fungal cell
An individual cell of a fungus, eg yeast
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Having more than one cell
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Controls what happens in the cell. Chromosomes are structures found in the nucleus of most cells. PLURAL OF NUCLEUS - NUCLEI
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Cell wall
Outer structure which provides support and prevents the cell from bursting by the uptake of water by Osmosis
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Cell membrane
A selectively permeable membrane surrounding the cell and controlling the entry and exit of materials
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The movement of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane from a region of low solute concentration to a region of high solute concentration
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Selectively permeable
The property of a membrane that controls the movement of molecules depending on their size
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Having turgor; enlarged and swollen with water
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Description of a plant cell in which the vacoule has shrunk and the membrane has pulled away from the wall due to water loss by osmosis
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Passive transport
This is the movement of molecules down a concentration gradient without the need for additional energy; eg - diffusion and osmosis
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Fat or oils composed of fatty acids and glycerol
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Active transport
The transport of molecules against their concentration gradient from a region of low concentration to a region of high concentration
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Concentration gradient
The difference in concentration between two solutions, between different cells or between cells and a surrounding solution
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The passive movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration until they are evenly spread
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The structure made of DNA that codes for all the characteristics of an organism
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This is the replicated copy of a chromosome visible during mitosis
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Aspetic techinques
Name given to the laboratory procedures carried out to prevent the contamination of pure cultures of microorganisms
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A cell that contains two sets of chromosomes
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Chromosome complement
The number of chromosomes in a typical cell of an organism
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A type of cell division which produces daughter cells indentical to the parent
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The middle position in a cell where the chromosomes line up and attach to the spindle fibres during mitosis
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A solid or liquid nutrient agar or broth used to culture microorganisms
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The doubling of the chromosomes resulting from the copying of DNA to produce chromatids before mitosis
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The opposite ends of a cell to which chromatids are pulled during mitosis
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Spindle fibres
Protein threads or fibres produced to pull the chromatids apart during mitosis
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Refers to the specific way that the bases in DNA pair with each other (A-T and G-C)
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Double Helix
The shape of the DNA molecule with two strands twisted together in a spiral
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The basic units of genetic material inherited from our parents. Gene is a section of DNA which controls part of cell's chemistry - particulary protein production
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Genetic code
The code formed by the order of the bases in DNA that determines the organisms characteristics
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The substance that carries a complementary copy of a gene from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
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The units or molecules of which DNA is composed
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The chemical link that holds molecules together
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Sub-units of DNA and mRNA which make up the genetic code.
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Amino Acids
Complex molecules which form the building blocks of proteins
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Active site
The part of the enzyme to which a specific substrate can attach or fit onto.
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Changes the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed by the reaction itself
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The change in the shape of a protein such as an enzyme that results in them no longer fitting their substrate
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Proteins which catalyse or speed up chemical reactions
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Describes the conditions which an enzyme works best eg temperature and pH
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A substance formed in a chemical reaction
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A substance on which enzyme act
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Refers to the fact that each enzyme will only act on one particular substrate
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The way in which genetic material is transferred from a donor to a recipent eg viruses, bacterial cells or plasmids
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Refers to the modification of an organism by genetic engineering
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An ultramicroscopic infectious non-cellular organism that can replicate inside the cells of living hosts with negative consequences
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Genetic Engineering
A process of changing the structure of a particular gene, usually to remove defects
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The carbohydrates made by green plants in photosynthesis that can join into larger carbohydrates such as starch
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A type of carbohydrate. Plants can turn the glucose produced in photosynthesis into starch for storage and turn it back into glucose when needed for respiration
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Carbon Emissions
The release of carbon dioxide gas into the atomsphere
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The green chemical inside the chloroplasts of plant cells - enables photosynthesis to take place
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Food belonging to the food group consisting of starch, sugars and cellulose. It is vital for energy in humans and stored as fats if eaten in excess - important for photosynthesis in plants
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Stands for ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE - high energy chemical that transfers chemical energy in cells.
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An unicellular fungus used in the brewing and baking industries
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Chemical change that takes place inside living cells which uses glucose and oxygen to produce the energy organisms need to live. Carbon Dioxide is a by-product of respiration.
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The alcohol which is produced as a result of fermentation of sugars by yeast
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A term for respiration in the absence of oxygen
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A simple sugar made by the body from food which is used by cells to make energy in respiration
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Latic Acid
A toxic chemical produced during anaerobic respiration
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The substance produced by the breakdown of glucose in the cytoplasm during the first stage of aerobic respiration and fermentation
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Card 2


Compartment in cell containing solution of salts and sugars (cell sap). Water storage and maintenance of turgar within the cell.



Card 3


Disc-shaped structures found in cytoplasm. Location where photosynthesis occurs and sugar is produced.


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Card 4


Location of many chemical reactions. Contains organelles and ribosomes.


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Found in cytoplasm. Location where aeorbic respiration occurs and most of the cell's ATP is produced.


Preview of the back of card 5
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