Can Neuroscience Explain the Ghost in the Machine

  • Created by: Yasmetron
  • Created on: 19-01-23 20:45
What are the levels of organisation?
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What did Descartes find?
he recognised that the mind and brain were inextricably linked, but also believed that they were separate
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What is Occam's Razor?
a logical principle where one should not make more assumptions than the minimum needed. the simplest explanations is the best
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What is materialism?
- the only thing that can exist is matter
- all things are composed of matter and all phenomena are the result of material interactions
- the construct we ca;; the mind must therefore be a property of matter
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What is substance dualism?
mind and matter fundamentally different
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What is identity theory?
mind = meter is an absolute sense
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What is property dualism?
even if the mind comes from brain subject experience has properties that can't be reduced to brain states
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What are the arguments of property dualism?
- non-reductive physicalism - no one can explain higher level effects in terms of lower level causes
- they have properties that are distinct from the properties of brain
- subjective experience is fundamental: we know that mental states are real because
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What is functionalism?
- a form of property dualism
- developed as an answer to the mind-body problem in response to behaviourism
- mental life can be explained in terms of higher-level functions
- assumes that information processing occurs at a level of abstraction that does n
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What did Spencer (1870) say?
so that between all the points a, and all the points e, there will be prodiced numerous places of converging and diverging communication
(about AI)
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What did McClelland, Rumelhart and Hinton (1986) say?
when unit A and unit B are simultaneously excited, increase the strength of the connection between them
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What is PDP?
- Parallel Distributed Processing
- inspired b the massively parallel nature of brain networks
- acquired knowledge is distributed across the network rather than at a single point in the network
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What is Backpropagation?
- the networks are presented with training sets containing several examples of inputs along with corresponding desired outputs
- the extent of differences between actual and desired outputs is the degree of error
- the error signal is propagated backwards
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What did DeepMind and AlphaGo produce?
- an AI system that learns from watching and making mistakes playing the game GO
- achieved 99.8% winning rate
- won against the best GO player 4 times
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What are some arguments against functionalism?
- John Searle (1980) argues that emulating the functional behaviour of the brain, or some part of it, is insufficient grounds for attributing to a machine or computing device the cognitive states such as those experience by conscious beings like ourselves
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What is Searle's Thought Experiment: The Chinese Room
- a English speaker who knows no Chinese in a room full of boxes of Chinese symbols with a book of instructions for manipulating the symbols
- people outside room send in Chinese symbols unknown to the person in the room, are questions in Chinese
- follo
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What is Neurophilosophy?
neurophilosophy arises out of the recognition that the brain sciences and their adjust technology are sufficiently advanced that real progress can be made in understanding the mind brain.. it focuses on problems at the intersection of a greening neuroscie
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define reductionism
reductionism = the principle that complex phenomena can be explained in terms of the interactions between similar phenomena.
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What is inter-theoretic reduction?
a process that explains the relationship between two theories at different levels. explaining a high level theory in terms of a more fundamental lower level theory
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What is eliminative materialism?
The radical claim that our ordinary, common-sense understanding of the mind is deeply wrong and that some or all of the mental states posited by common-sense do not actually exist.
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What is an example of inter-theoretic reduction?
Laws of Mendelian Inheritance reduce to Genetics
- Mendel (19th century)
- cultivated and tested 28,000 pea plants
- these laws are not obsolete because they are explained by classical genetics
- the laws don't exist separately from their mechanisms. th
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What is weak emergence?
the high level phenomena emerge from the low level domain, but the truths concerning that phenomenon are unexpected [but still deducible] given the principles governing the low level domain
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What is strong emergence?
a high-level phenomenon is strongly emergent with respect to a low-level domain, but truths concerning that phenomenon are not deducible, even in principle, from truths in the low-level domain
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What did Descartes find?


he recognised that the mind and brain were inextricably linked, but also believed that they were separate

Card 3


What is Occam's Razor?


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Card 4


What is materialism?


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Card 5


What is substance dualism?


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