C4

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what is the sturcture of the atom?
a central nucleus, surrounded by negatively charged electrons
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what is the nucleus made up of? what charge is it??
protons and neutrons and nucleus is positively charged but the atom isnt
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why does an atome not have a charge?
because the positive protons and negative elctrons cancel eachother out
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what is the relative charge and relative mass of a proton?
+1 and 1
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what is the relative charge and relative mass of a neutron?
0 and 1
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what is the relative charge and relative mass of an electron?
-1 and 0.0005 (zero)
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whats an element and a compound?
Element-made of just one type of atom, elements cant be broken down. Compound-substance made of 2 or more elements that are chemically combined.
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what is the mass and atomic number?
Mass-total number or protons and neutrons in an atom. Atomic-number of protons in an atom.
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how are the elements in the periodic table arranged?
in order of atomic number (smallest to largest)
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what does the group number and period number tell you about the element??
GROUP NUMBER- how many electrons are on the outer shell. PERIOD NUMBER-how many shells are taken up
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what are isotopes?
atoms that are the same with different mass numbers but the same atomic number
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how can you identify isotopes from data about protons, neutrons and electrons
you can tell because the electron and protons are the same number but the number of neutron are different.
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how many electrons can the first shell hold and how many electrons can hold 2+ hold?
1st shell-2 electrons. 2+-8 electrons
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what is an ion?
it is a charged atom ior group of atoms, for example = Na+ Cl- NH4+ SO4 2-
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what is a positive ion?
when an atom or group of atoms loose one or more elctrons. if you lost two electrons it would look like 2+ ion.
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whats a negative ion?
a negative ion is when an atome or a group of atoms gains one or more electrons making it 2- ion.
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what is ionic bonding? metals, non metals,
ionic bonding is when the metal atom becomes a positive ion by loosing one electron. non metal gain an electron to fill its outer shell. The positive and negative ionic bonds are attracted to eachother, this is ionic bonding
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whats an example of an ionic bond? what are their properties?
magnesium oxide, sodium chloride. they have high melting points, dissolve in water, can conduct electricity (not when solid)
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what happens when a metal and non metal combine??
one electron from the nonmetal goes to the metal, each ion will have a full shell on the outside
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whats it called when an ion/element has a full outer shell?
a stable octet
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what happens if the element giving away an electron has two on the outershell? whats an example of this?
they pair up with two other atoms, so there are three overall. an exmaple of this would be magnesium and chloride. chloride only needs one on the outer shell meaning magnesium will pair up with 2 chlorines
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what is a group in terms of the periodic table?
groups go down vertically and normally have the same properties as eachother because they have the same number of electrons on the outer shell
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what are periods in the periodic table?
the go horizontally downward and relates to the number of occupied shells of electrons
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if the electronic structure of an elemnt was 2,8,6. what period and group would it be in?
group 6 and period 3 (6 electrons on out shell (3 shells occupied))
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what are the three types of bonding?
ionic bonding, covalent bonding (for non metals) and metallic bonding (only for metals)
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what is covalent bonding?
when 2 metals join together to share an electron. water is an example of a covalent bonded because (H2O) contains hydrogen and oxygen molecules.
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who was the author of the periodic table?
mandeleev
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what are the properties of group one metals?
they are alkali metals, they are very fast in water, cause an exothermic reaction and quite violent (if carried in glass will probably break the glass)
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what is the reaction with water like with group 1 elements?
they act vigerously with water and get worse as you go down the group. it produces hydrogen and hydroxide
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what happens to the outer shell of the group one metals?
it looses one electron to become a positive ion with a stable outer shell,
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at what point does group one metals become more reactive in water?
when the one electron gets further away from the nucleus
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what are group 7 elements known as?
the halogens, they are fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and halogens
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name one of the many uses of group 7 elements?
iodine - antiseptic. chlorine - to sterilise water and make plastics
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what happens in a chemical reaction between two halogens?
the more reactive halogen will overide the less reactive halogen
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what are the properties of group 7 elements?
they all have different properties
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which elements in group 7 are more reactive and why?
as you go up the table, the ones at the bottom are less reactive this is because at the bottom the not filled outer shell if closer to the nucleus
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what is reduction?
a gain of electrons
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what is oxidation ?
a loss of electrons
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what are transition metals?
elements between group 2-3 because they have typical properties of metals
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what is thermal decomposition? what happens when this happens to transition metals?
when a substance is broken down into 2 or more substances by heating. they change colours and change to metal oxide and carbon dioxide.
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what are the uses for transition metals?
iron-used to make steel (makes cars and bridges etc..) Copper- used as a conductor (electrical wiring)
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what is the structure of metals?
tightly packed together held together by metallic bonds w
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what is a super conductor??
at low temp it can have little/no resistance to ho much energy can flow through
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whats are the disadvantages to the super conductor?
only work at low temps of 200 degrees or below atm, the low temp costs a lot to maintain.
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what are the 4 main sources for water in the UK??
rivers, lakes, resivours and aquifers (wells and bore holes)
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what does the chemical industry use water for?
as a coolant, as a solvent, as a raw material,
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what does unpurified water have a chance to contain?
insoluable particles, pollutants, miscroorganisms, dissolved salts and minerals
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what are dissolved ions and how can you know whater has them?
dissolved ions are ions of salts that have been dissolved in water and they can be tested for by using pecipitation tetts
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how can sulphates be detected in water?
barium chloride solution
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what is the nucleus made up of? what charge is it??

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Card 4

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what is the relative charge and relative mass of a proton?

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