C4

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what is the structure of an atom?
has a central nucleus surrounded by shells of negativley charged electrons
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what is the relative charge and mass of a proton?
+1 and 1
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what is the relative charge and mass of a neutron?
0 and 1
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what is the relative charge and mass of an electron?
-1 and 0.0005 (zero)
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what is the mass number?
the total number of protons and neutrons
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what is the atomic number?
the number of prtons
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what are isotopes?
atoms of the same element with a different mass number
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what is the electron configuration of an atom?
the number of elecrtons in the shells
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what are some things to remember about constructing electron shell diagrams?
the first shell only holds two electrons and shells after that holds up to eight electrons
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what is an ion?
a charged atom or group of atoms
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how are ions formed?
when an atom loses electrons or gains electrons
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how are postive ions formed?
when an atom loses one or more elctrons
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how is a negative ion formed?
when an atom gains one or more electrons
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what are the groups in the periodic table?
vertical colums indicating how many electrons ae in the uter shell of an atom e.g. group three have three electrons in the outer shell
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what are the periods in the periodic table?
horizontal rows indicating how many shells it has e.g. row two has two shells
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what are the three types of bonding?
ionic bonding- between metals and non metals, covalent bonding- between non metals, metallic bonding- between metals only
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what metals are found in group one?
alkali metals
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what are the firs three metals?
lithium, sodium and potassium
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what do they all have in common?
they are all stored under oil because they react with air and vigorously with water
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what do alkali metals produce when reacted with water?
hydrogen and a hydroxide
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what colour will a flame test show for these three metals?
lithium-red, sodium-yellow, postassium-purple
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what are some trends in group one?
they lose one electron as they react from its outer shell so a positive ion is made, they become more reactive as they go down the list, loss of elctron means an oxidation reaction occurs
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what are the first four group seven elements?
flurine, chlorine, bromine, iodine
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what is a displacement reaction?
when a more reactive halogen replaces a less reactive halogen
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what is an example of a displacement reaction?
potassium bromide + chlorine = potassium chloride + bromine
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what are some trends in group seven?
when they react they gain one elctron to form a negative ion, they get less rective down the column,
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what is thermal decomposition?
a reaction where a substance is broken down, using heat, into two or more substances
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what bonds are metal atoms held together by?
metallic bonding
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metal ions are closely packed together in what?
delocalised electrons
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what does this mean?
the free moving electrons can conduct electricity
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what are the main resources of water in the UK?
rivers, lakes, reservois, aquifers (wells and bore holes)
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what does the chemical industry use water for?
as a coolent, solvent and as a raw material
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how is water treated to become a household water supply?
water is settled to allow insoluble particles to sink, it is then filtered to remove very fine particles, chlorine is added to kill the microorganisms in the water
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what are some pollutants that are found in water?
nitrates from fertillisers, lead componants from old pipes, pesticides from spraying crops near water supplies
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what colour do chlorides turn in a precipitation reaction?
white
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what colour do bromides turn in a precipitation reaction?
cream
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what colour do iodies turn in a precipitation reaction?
pale yellow
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what is the relative charge and mass of a proton?

Back

+1 and 1

Card 3

Front

what is the relative charge and mass of a neutron?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is the relative charge and mass of an electron?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is the mass number?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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