C4

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how many atoms is an element made up of?
one
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how are the elements in the periodic table arranged?
in order of increasing proton number. this gives repeating patterns in the properties
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what can you find out about a element from the periodic table?
relative atomic mass, protons and neutrons in an atom, symbol, name and atomic number
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what is a group and how does it relate to the no. of electrons in the outer shell?
group = a vertical column. the group number is the same as the number of electrons in the outer shell
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what is a period?
a horizontal row which shows how many shells a element has.
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describe a atom...
a small nucleaus made up of protons and neutrons surrounded by electrons arranged in shells
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what makes an atom neutral?
the fact that it has the same amount of protons as electrons so it has no electric charge
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what is electron configuration?
how the electrons are arranged in shells around the nucleus
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how do you write electron configuration?
as a seris of numbers showing the amount of electrons in each shell
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what makes an equation balanced?
the total mass of products is always equal to the total mass of the reactants. that way no atoms are lost or made.
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how can you know the hazards of a substance?
look at the hazard symbols on the chemical and treat with caution accordingly
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name the properties of group 1 (alkali metals)...
as you go down the group - the higher the reactivity, the lower the MP and BP and the higher the density
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what is the trend of group 1?
they all have one elctron in the outer shell. they get more reactive as you go down because the outer shell gets further awaay from the nucleus meaning the electron is lost easier
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what happens to them when their cut?
they start off shiny but tarnish quickly because they become covered in a layer of metal oxide
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what happens when alkali metals react with chlorine?
it is a vigorous reaction which produces white crystalline salts
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what happens when alkali metals react with water?
they form a metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas. this reaction gets stronger as you go down the group. they float due to low densities and produce bubbles of hydrogen
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describe the halogens at room temperature...
chlorine = green gas bromine = brown liquid iodine = dark purple solid
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what type of molecules are the halogens?
diatomic molecules
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what are the their properties?
as you go down the group - the lower the reactivity, the higher the MP and BP and the higher the density
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what is the trend in group 7?
they all have 7 electrons in their outer shell - they become less reactive becausethe outer shell gets further away from the nucleus so another electron isn't so easily gained.
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what happens in displacement reactions?
a more reactive halogen will displace a less reactive one.
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why do group 1 and group 7 elements easily react?
because group 1 elements are trying to get rid of one electron and group 7 elements are trying to gain a electron
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what are the properties of group 1 and group 7 compounds?
they conduct electricity when molten or dissolved because they're made up of charged particles called ions, which are free to move around. also these compounds form crystals because they are arranged in a regular lattice
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what are ions?
atoms which have lost or gained an electron meaning they have a charge as the number of protons and electrons is not equal
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what is ionic bonding?
when electrons are transferred from one atom to another. atoms which lose electrons = positive ions, atoms which gain electrons = negative ions
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what type of shells do ions have?
full or empty
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

how are the elements in the periodic table arranged?

Back

in order of increasing proton number. this gives repeating patterns in the properties

Card 3

Front

what can you find out about a element from the periodic table?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is a group and how does it relate to the no. of electrons in the outer shell?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is a period?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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