C4

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  • Created by: Faith16
  • Created on: 10-12-15 19:06
What is the nucleus of an atom?
It is in the middle of the atom and contains protons and neutrons. It also has a positive charge. Almost the whole mass of the atom is concentrated in the nucleus.
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What are the electrons?
They move around the nucleus and are negatively charged. They are arranged in shells around the nucleus.
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What are the relative masses and charges of protons, neutrons and electrons?
Proton- Relative mass= 1 Charge= +1 Neutron- Relative mass= 1 Charge= 0 Electron- Relative mass= 0.0005 Charge= -1
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What are the number of protons always equal to in a neutral atom?
Number of electrons
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What are the symbols for soild, liquid, gas and dissolved in water?
s (solid), l (liquid), g (gas), aq (dissolved in water)
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What flame colours do lithium, sodium and potassium produce?
Red (lithium), yellow/ orange (sofium) and lilac (potassium)
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What is a line spectrum?
When heated electrons become excited and produce light energy. The wavelenghts can be recorded as a line spectrum. Different elements have different wavelenghts due to each element having a different electron arrangment.
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What is the practial technique used to produce line spectrums?
Spectroscopy
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What did Dobereiner do?
Tried to create the periodic table by using his theory of triads. He put elements into groups of 3 based on their chemical properties (e.g. Li, Na and K). The middle of each traid had a relative atomic mass that was the average of the other two.
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What was Newlands' law of octaves?
Newlands noticed that when arraging the elements in order of relative atomic mass every eighth element had similar propertires so he listed known elements in rows of seven. But the pattern broke on the third row with transition metals ( Ti and Fe).
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Why was Newlands criticised for his octaves theory?
He didn't leave any gaps for new undiscovered metals, he mixed up metals and non metals and his groups contained elements that didn't have similar properties.
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What was Dmitri Mendeleev's perodic table?
This is the perodic table that we know today. He put the elements in order of atomic mass but left gaps in order to keep elemnts with similar properties in the same vertical groups. The gaps helped him predict the properties of undiscovered elements.
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What are the vertical columns on a periodic table?
They are called groups. A group number tells us how many electrons a element has on its outer shell.
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What can you make predictions about when looking at a periodic table?
If you know the proterties of one element you can predict the proterties of others in the group. You can also predict reactivity.
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What are the rows called on a perodic table?
These are called periods. Each period represents another full shell of electrons.
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Where are the relative mass and prton number found in the perodic table for each element?
The relative mass is found in the top left hand corner and the proton number is found in the bottom left hand corner.
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How many electrons are found in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd shell of an electron?
1st= 2 elctrons 2nd= 8 electrons 3rd= 8 electrons
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How are ions made?
When atoms lose or gain electrons they form charged particles called ions.
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What happens when an element from group 1 loses an electron?
They become positive ions as they have a full shell after they lose 1 electron due to only having 1 electron on its outler shell.
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Explain ionic bonding.
Oppositely charged ions are strongly attracted to each other so they leap to the first ion with an opposite charge forming an ionic bond.
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What happens when sodium and chloride attract?
The sodium atom give up its outer electron and becomes an Na+ ion. The chlorine atom picks up the spare electron and becomes a Cl- ion.
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What are elements held together by ionic bonding called?
Ionic compounds.
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What is a giant lattice?
Solid ionic compounds. Each lattice forms a single crustal. When they are molten or are dissolved in water they can conduct electricity as the ions can move.
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What should compounds total charge always add up to?
Zero
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What are the alkali metals and some of their trends?
The alkali metals are group 1 metals. One of their trends is that the more you go down group 1 the more reactive they get (atoms get further away).They also have a higher density (more atoms, more mass), lower melting point and lower boiling point.
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What happens when alkali metals react with cold water?
React vigorously by moving and fizzing around the surface of water (potassium sets alight). Hydrogen is produced (tested with lit flame and squeaky pop). Reaction makes an alkaline solution hence alkali metals.
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What happens when alkali metals react with chlorine?
They react vigoroulsy producing a colourless crystalline salts.
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What are the halogens and some of their trends?
They are the group 7 elements. As you go down the group they become less reactive (electrons further from nucleus so electrons attracted less strongly), higher melting point, higher boiling point.
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What is the appearance of fluorine at room temperature and pressure?
It is a very reactive, poisonous yellow gas.
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What is the appearance of chlorine at room temperature and pressure?
It is fairly reactive, poisonous dense green gas.
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What is the appearance of bromine at room temperature and pressure?
Dense, poisonous, orange volatile liquid and forms an orange gas.
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What is the appearance of iodine at room temperature and pressure?
It is a dark grey crystalline solid or a purple vapour.
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What happens when you react an halogen with a alkali metal?
They form salts called metal halides e.g. sodium chloride, potassium bromide and lithium iodide. The reactions are less vigorous as you go down the group.
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What happens when you react an halogen with iron?
They form a coloured solid called iron halides. They also become less vigorous as you go down the group.
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What happens to a halogen during displacement reactions?
Chlorine is more reactive an iodine so if chlorine reactions with potassium iodide solution it will form potassium chloride + iodine.
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What are the different hazard symbols?
Turn to page 46 in book.
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What cautions are taken with alkali metals in labs?
They are very reactive so they are stored under oil (water vapour). They are not touched with bare hands due to sweat on skin- produce lots of heat and a corrosive hydroxide. Apparatus is dry. Solutions are corrosive so kept away from skin and eyes.
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What cautions are taken with halogens in labs?
Chlorine and iodine are both very toxic. Fluorine is the most reactive and too dangerous to have in labs. Liquid bromine is corrosive. Halogens have poisomous vapurs so they are kept in fume cupboards so that you don't breath in the vapours.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the electrons?

Back

They move around the nucleus and are negatively charged. They are arranged in shells around the nucleus.

Card 3

Front

What are the relative masses and charges of protons, neutrons and electrons?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the number of protons always equal to in a neutral atom?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the symbols for soild, liquid, gas and dissolved in water?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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هزل, يتبادل المزاح

dm me for cheeky banter

MichalinaTr

what book?

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