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What is Newland's law of Octaves?
Every eighth element has similar properties but it broke down on the 3 row.
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How was Mendeleev's periodic table arranged?
50 known elements in atomic mass. He left gaps for undiscovered elements.
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How is the modern periodic table arranged?
In electronic structure so you can predict chemical properties.
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Give three properties of the alkali metals as you go down
More reactive, lower melting and boiling point and low density.
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What gas is produced by a reaction between an alkali metal and water?
Hydrogen gas.
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give three properties of the halogens as you go down.
Less reactive, higher melting/boiling point.
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What happens when a more reactive halogen reacts with a less reactive one?
it will displace it.
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Give four properties of transition metals.
Good conductors, Desnse/strong, less reactive, more than one ion.
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What are transition metals used for and give an example.
Catalysts, haber process.
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What ions cause water to be hard?
Magnesium and calcium ions.
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What is scum?
Scum is when the magnesium and calcium ions react with soap which is in soluble.
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What is scale?
When hard water is boiled, the hydrocarbonate ions decompose to form calcium carbonate (Scum).
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How can you make water soft?
Ion excahange column or adding sodium carbonate (washing soda).
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whats the method for comparing the hardness of water with titrations?
Fill burette with 50cm cubed soap solution, 50cm cubed of water into flask, add 1cm cubed of soap solution and shake for 10 seconds, repeat till you get a lather and record how much soap was used.
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How is water treated?
Passed through a mesh screen, chemicals added to make solids and microbes stick and fall to the bottom, filtered through gravel and then chlorinated.
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Give one disadvantage of adding fluorine and chlorine to water.
Fluorine can cause cancer and bone problems and chlorine can react with natural substances to produce toxins.
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What is meant by position of equilibrium?
The relative amounts of reactants and products.
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What are the effects of temperature on the equilibrium?
Raise temperature and endothermic will increase to use up the extra heat and reduce the temperature and exothermic will increase to give out more heat
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What are the industrial conditions for the haber process?
200 atmospherics and 450 degrees with an iron catalyst.
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Whats the ration of hydrogen to nitrogen in the haber process?
3:1 (H:N)
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What is the problem with increasing the temperature in the haber process?
forward reaction is exothermic so it pushes it the wrong way but it increases the rate of reaction which is better.
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Whats the functional group of alcohols and what do their names end in?
Functional group is -oh- and names end on ol (e.g. ethanol).
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Give two used of alcohols.
Used as solvents in perfume or fuels such as spirit burners or car fuel.
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Give three examples of alcohols.
Methanol, ethanol and propanol.
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What is the functional group of carboxylic acids and what do their names end in?
functional group is -cooh- and names end in anoic acid.
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Give two uses carboxylic acids.
Used to make soaps and reacted with alcohols to make esters and dissolved in water to make vinegar and citric acid in fruits.
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What is the functional group of esters and how are their names made?
functional group is -coo- and names are made from the first part of alcohol and second part of the acid.
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Give two uses of esters.
Sweet smells and volatile makes them ideal for perfumes and used as solvents for paints.
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What are two things you have to think about when using esters?
flammable and volatile so can be dangerous and irritate mucous membranes.
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Whats the formula for working out moles?
Moles = concentration x volume
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How do you change cm cubed to dm cubed?
divide by 1000
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Whats the formula for the acid concentration in grams per cubic decimeter?
mass = moles x relative formula mass.
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what kind of reaction is bond breaking and bond forming?
Bond forming is exothermic and bond breaking is endothermic.
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What is the method to test amount of energy a fuel releases when burnt?
50g of water in copper can, weight spirit burner and lid then place under and light the wick, stir and head water until it reaches 50 degrees then weigh the spirit burner.
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how do you work out the enrgy per gram of spirit?
Use the equation Q=M x C x DeltaT (temp change)
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How do you get energy from hydrogen?
Reaction with oxygen is exothermic so it gives out energy and only produces water.
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Give two disadvantages of hydrogen fuel cells.
Gases take more space to store, its explosive, hydrogen is often made from hydrocarbons (fossil fuels) or electrolysis of water which both require electricity that been generated by fossil fuels.
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Give the colours of the flames for lithium, sodium, potassium, calcium and barium
Lithium is crimson, sodium is yellow, potassium is lilac, calcium is red and barium is green.
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Give the colour of the precipitate for calcium, copper (||), Iron (||), Iron (|||), Aluminium and Magnesium when reacted with NaOH.
Calcium is white, copper is blue, iron (||) is green, Iron (||) is brown, aluminium is white then dissolves with excess NaOH an magnesium is white.
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What could you do if you got to white precipitates?
Add excess NaOH and see if it dissolves (It will be aluminium if it does), if it doesnt do the flame test.
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What test could you do for Negative ions?
Test for carbonate by bubbling it through lime water.
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Name the test for Halides and give results for chloride, bromide and iodide.
Add dilute nitric acid followed by silver nitrate. The reuslts are chlroide gives white, bromide gives cream and iodide gives yellow (all precipitates of silver nitrate).
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Whats the test for sulfate ions?
Add dilute HCl followed by barium chrloride solution and a white precipitate of barium sulfate means it was a sulfate.
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Card 2

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How was Mendeleev's periodic table arranged?

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50 known elements in atomic mass. He left gaps for undiscovered elements.

Card 3

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How is the modern periodic table arranged?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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Give three properties of the alkali metals as you go down

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Card 5

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What gas is produced by a reaction between an alkali metal and water?

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