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what is rate of reaction?
the amount of product made in a specific time
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how can the rate of reaction be increased?
increasing temperature, in creasing concentration (of liquids), increasing pressure (in gases)
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how can you measure the rate of reaction?
measuring the mass of the reaction mixture in a flask on a top pan balance or measuring the volume of a gas produced using a gas syringe
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from a graph, what information can you find out?
how long it takes to make the maximum amount of product by drawing a line from the flat line to the x axis, how much product is made by drawing a line from the top to the y axis, which reaction is quicker by comparing the steepness of the lines
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why does temperature affect the rate of reaction?
in a low temperature the particles move slowly so they collide less often and at a lower engery so less collisions will be successful, in high temperature the particles move quickly so they collide more often, at a higher engery
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what does increasing the temperature also increase within the particles?
kinetic energy
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what does this increase in kinetic energy do and result in?
makes the particles move faster: more frequent collisions lead to a faster reaction, more energetic collisions lead to more successful collisions
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what else can be increased in a reaction?
the concentration
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what does this do?
makes the particles closer together so they are more likely to collide with one another
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the surface area can also be increased, what does this do?
powdered solids have a larger surface area than lumps of solid meaning there are more particles, so therefore will collide more
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what does a catalyst do?
used to speed up a reaction without being changed or used up by the end
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how do you calculate rate of reaction?
draw a straight line following the start of the curve and then work out the gradient
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what is the relative atomic mass?
the bigger/top number
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what is the relative formula mass?
the combination of all relative atomic masses involved: H2SO4 { H2 - 2x1= 2 + S - 1x32= 32 + O4 - 4x16= 64 } = 98
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to calculate how much substance a reaction will produce or the amount of reactant needed, you have to remember what?
the total mass of the reactants always equals the total mass of the products as no atoms are created or destroyed and the more reactants you start with the greater the amount of product formed
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how can you use ratios to work out how much of each reactant is needed?
4.8g of magnesium reacts with oxygen to make 8.0g magnesium oxide. how much oxygen was used? 8.0g-4.8g=3.2g
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how do you work out percentage yield?
actual yield / predicted yield x 100
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what is an exothermic reaction?
a reaction that releases heat energy to the surroundings and cause temperatures to rise
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what is an endothermic reaction?
a reaction that absorbs heat energy from the surroundings and causes a temperature drop
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what can the heat given out in exothermic reactions be used for?
heat things, produce electricity, make sound, make light
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what reactions are used to make and break bonds?
make bonds = exothermic, break bonds = endothermic
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what are some features of a batch process?
make a product on demand and on small scale, can be used to make a variety of products, are labour intensive- reactor needs to be cleaned etc
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what are some features of a continuous process?
make a product on a large scale, are dedicated to making just one product, operate all the time, can run automatically
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how can medicine be extracted from plants?
crushing, boiling chromatography (to separate concentrated solutions)
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why is making a new pharmaceutical drug so expensive?
materials, research and testing, labour, energy, marketing
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what can be used to ensure they are pure as possible?
thin layer chormatography (TLC)
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what are the three types of carbon?
diamond, graphite, buckminster fullerene
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these are all allotropes of carbon, what are allotropes?
different forms of the same element with atoms arranged in different structures
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what are the properties of diamond?
insoluble in water, has no free electrons so wont conduct electricity, used in jewellery, used in cutting tools because it is very hard and due to the strong bonds it has a high melting point, is a giant molecular structure
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what are the properties of graphite?
insoluble in water, black and slippery due to the weak intermolceular forces so used in pencil leads and as lubricants,has free elctrons so conducts electricity, has a very high melting point as it has lots of strong bonds, giant molecular structure
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what are the properties of buckminster fullerene?
(C60) known as buckyballs as it is shaped like a football, made of 60 carbon atoms, black solid
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how are nanotubes formed?
by joining fullerenes together
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what are they used for?
reinforce graphite tennis racquets due to their strength, make connectors and semiconductors in circuits because of their electrical properties, attaching to catalysts to create a more efficient catalyst
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what other uses do fullerenes have?
because of their shape they can trap other substances e.g. HIV treatment uses buckyballs to deliver material which disrupts the working of the HIV virus
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Card 2

Front

how can the rate of reaction be increased?

Back

increasing temperature, in creasing concentration (of liquids), increasing pressure (in gases)

Card 3

Front

how can you measure the rate of reaction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

from a graph, what information can you find out?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

why does temperature affect the rate of reaction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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