C2 higher questions

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What's a sedimentary rock?
They are made up of sediments over millions of years and are soft. They are formed in layers. E.g. sandstone
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What's an igneous rock?
Igneous rocks are formed when hot, molten magma in the Earth's mantle cools and solidifies. E.g basalt
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What's a metamorphic rock?
When sedimentary rocks are changed into harder rocks by enormous pressure or very high temperatures. The new rock has a different structure. E.g slate.
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How do we make concrete?
We mix cement with sand, gravel and water and allow it to set.
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Name some problems with quarrying
It's noisy and dusty, takes up land, changes the shape of the landscape and increases the local road traffic.
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Why do we recycle metals
It's cheaper than extracting from its ore. It conserves the limited supply and uses less energy.
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What's an alloy?
An alloy is a mixture of a metal with another element (usually another metal). They are often harder and stronger than the pure metal.
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What is brass mad from?
Copper and zinc
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What is solder made from?
Lead and tin
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What is rusting?
Rusting is an example of an oxidation reaction
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What are the conditions for rusting?
Iron, water and oxygen.
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Why do some car companies use aluminium over steel?
It doesn't rust so will have a longer lifetime. It is also less dense than steel, so the car will be lighter so it will have a better fuel economy.
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What factors affect the cost of running chemical plants?
The price of energy, labour costs, cost of catalyst, cost of the reactants, cost of the equipment.
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What are bases?
Bases are the oxides and hydroxides of metals with a pH of greater than 7.
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What are salts?
When acids are neutralised by carbonates they produce a salt.
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What do fertilisers do?
Fertilisers give plants the essential chemical elements needed for growth and increase crop yield.
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How do we get the salt we use in food?
It can be removed from the sea or mined from salt deposits.
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What are the products of electrolysis of brine?
hydrogen is made at the cathode. Chlorine is made at the anode.
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Why is silica-rich magma more dangerous than iron-rich magma?
It is thicker and thicker lava results in more violent and catastrophic eruptions.
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Why is granite harder than marble?
It is an igneous rock where as marble is a metamorphic.
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Why is steel used to reinforce concrete?
It combines the strength and flexibility of the steel bars with the hardness of the concrete and has many more uses than ordinary concrete.
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What is a smart alloy?
A smart alloy can be bent and twisted but will return to its original shape when heated as t has shape memory.
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Write a balanced symbol equation for the reaction of sulfuric acid and ammonia
2NH3 + H2SO4 = (NH4)2SO4
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How do you make a fertiliser in a lab?
Measure out the alkali into a beaker. Add acid from a burette until the pH value is 7. Transfer the solution to an evaporating dish. Evaporate until crystals form.
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What is the Earth's lithosphere like?
It is the relatively cold, rigid outer part of the Earth. It is made out of the crust and top part of the mantle.
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Why do plates sit on top of the mantle?
They are less dense.
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What do plate movements cause?
Earthquakes and volcanoes
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What causes plates to move?
Convection currents in the matle
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Where do volcanoes form?
At places where magma can find its way through weaknesses in the Earth's crust.
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Why does magma rise through the crust?
It is less dense than the crust
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What is lava?
Molten rock on the surface of the Earth
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What is thermal decomposition?
One material breaks down into two or more new substances.
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Equation for extracting copper
copper oxide + carbon -> copper + carbon dioxide
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Benefits of recycling copper
It's cheaper than extracting copper. It conserves the world's limited supply.
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What is an alloy?
An alloy is a mixture of a metal with another element.
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Why doesn't aluminium corrode?
It quickly forms a protective layer of aluminium oxide
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What are the benefits of recycling?
Less quarrying is required, less energy is used to extract them from ores, reserves the Earth's limited supply, disposal problems are reduce.
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What factors affect the cost of making a new substance?
Pressure, temperature, catalysts, number of people and the amount of unreacted material
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What are chemical indicators?
Chemicals that change colour to show changes in pH
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What are acids?
Substances with a pH of less than 7
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What are bases?
Oxides and hydroxides of metals with a pH of greater than 7
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What are alkalis?
Soluble bases with a pH greater than 7 and that dissolve in water
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Neutralisation by a base equation
Acid + base -> salt + water
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Neutralisation by a carbonate equation
Acid + carbonate -> salt + water + carbon dioxide
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Neutralisation ionic equation
H+(aq) + OH-(aq) -> H2O(I)
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What are the main essential elements found in fertiliser?
Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K).
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How do fertilisers increase crop yield?
By replacing essential elements in the soil that have been used up by a previous crop. Providing nitrogen that is used for growth
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What is sodium chloride used for?
As a food preservative and flavouring
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What does electrolysis of sodium chloride produce?
Sodium hydroxide in the solution. Hydrogen and the cathode. Chlorine at the anode.
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What are the uses of the products produce from the electrolysis of sodium chloride
Sodium hydroxide is used to make soap. Hydrogen is used to make margarine. Chlorine is used to sterilise water. Chlorine and sodium hydroxide are reacted together to make bleach.
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Card 2

Front

What's an igneous rock?

Back

Igneous rocks are formed when hot, molten magma in the Earth's mantle cools and solidifies. E.g basalt

Card 3

Front

What's a metamorphic rock?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How do we make concrete?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name some problems with quarrying

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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