C2

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What is an isotope?
A different atomic form of the same element, same no. of protons, different no. of neutrons.
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Ionic bonding occurs between which types of elements?
Metals and non-metals.
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Non metals ______ electrons and become _____
Gain, -ions
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Metals ______ electrons and become ____
Lose, +ions
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What structure do they have? Describe it...
Giant Ionic Lattice; regular lattice arrangement with very strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions in all directions, holding it together.
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Give 2 properties of ionic compounds
1: high m.p. and b.p. due to the strong forces of attraction being difficult to overcome. 2: When molten/dissolved, the ions are free to move and will carry an electric current.
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What structure do ions have?
The structure of a noble gas/have a full outer shell
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The overall charge of a compound must = ___
0
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Ionic bonding occurs between which type of element?
Non-metals
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What are the two possible structures of a covalent compound?
Simple molecular substances and giant covalent structures
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Give 3 properties of simple molecular substances.
Very strong covalent bonds to form small molecules of several atoms/Attraction between molecules is weak/Therefore low m.p. and b.p./no ions so no ability to carry current/most are gases or liquids at room temp
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Give 3 properties of giant covalent structures.
Also called macromolecules/Similar to ionic lattice structure/No charged ions present/all bonded by strong covalent bonds/all (except graphite) won'd conduct electricity
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Give 3 properties of diamond (GCSs)
Made from carbon/ each C atom makes 4 covalent bonds/ Hardest natural substance/ often used for drill tips
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Give 3 properties of graphite (GCSs)
Made from carbon/ each C atom only makes 3 covalent bonds/ in layers/ soft and slippery due to weak intermolecular forces/ layers slip off eg. pencils rub off on paper/ each C atom has a delocalised electron so can conduct heat and electricity.
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Give 2 properties of silica (GCSs)
Each grain is a giant structure of oxygen and silicon/ what sand is made from
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Describe metallic structures
Giant structure/metallic bonds leave delocalised (free) electrons from the outer shell of every atom/conduct heat and electricity/strong force of electrostatic attraction between metal +ions and free -e's/layers slide- malleable
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What is an alloy?
2 or more metals mixed together to make them harder (disrupts arrangement so layers won't slide easily)
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What are smart materials? Give an example.
Behave differently depending on conditions, eg. Nitinol- a memory alloy that can be twisted like rubber when cool. Stays bent if twisted too far, once heated to a certain temp it goes back to remembered shape. Uses- glasses frames, braces etc.
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What are nanoparticles? Give an example.
1-100 nms across, contain a few hundred atoms. eg. Fullerenes- molecules of carbon shaped like hollow balls/closed tubes/C atoms arranged in hexagonal rings/can be joined to form nanotubes with very strong bonds.
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Give 4 uses of nanoparticles
Huge S.A. to volume ratio so potentially used for industrial catalysts/Highly specific sensors (detect 1 type of molecule)/Strong light building materials/ cosmetics/nanomedicine (easily absorbed)/ Lubricant coatings/ conduct electricity
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Ionic bonding occurs between which types of elements?

Back

Metals and non-metals.

Card 3

Front

Non metals ______ electrons and become _____

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Metals ______ electrons and become ____

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What structure do they have? Describe it...

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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