C2

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What are the four main layers of the Earth and their properties?
Crust (relatively thin and rocky), Mantle (properties of a solid but can flow very slowly), Outer Core (made of liquid nickel and iron), Inner Core (made of solid nickel and iron).
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What is the lithosphere?
the crust and the upper part of the mantle.
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What are tectonic plates? Why do they move?
They are slabs of rock that make up the Earth's crust. They move due to convection currents that occur in the mantle.
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What is continental drift?
The movement of the tectonic plates over millions of years allows whole continents to drift thousands of kilometres apart.
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What happens when an oceanic plate and a continental plate meet?
The oceanic plate is subducted as it is more dense than the continental plate. The subducted oceanic plate melts, turning into molten rock, pressure builds up causing the molten rock to rise to the surface - volcanic eruption.
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Who put forward the theory of plate tectonics?
Alfred Wegener.
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Why did it take more than 50 years for Alfred Wegener's theory to be accepted?
it was difficult to work out how whole continents could move, it was not until 1960 that enough evidence was discovered to support the theory fully.
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How do different sized crystals form in igneous rocks?
Inside the volcano, magma cools slowly so larger crystals are formed. Outside the volcano, the lava cools quicker so smaller crystals are formed.
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What's the difference between magma and lava?
Magma is below the Earth's surface, lava is above the Earth's surface.
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Why do some people choose to live near volcanoes?
The soil is very fertile.
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What cools quicker, granite or basalt? What effect does this have on the crystals?
Granite takes longer to cool than basalt, which gives the crystals more time to develop.
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Where is obsidian formed? What effect does this have on the crystals?
Formed underwater. It cools down instantly so has no crystals.
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What are found at mid-ocean ridges? Where are the oldest rocks and why?
Volcanoes. The oldest rocks are found furthest from the mid-ocean ridges as new rocks have forced the old rocks away.
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What are limestone and marble forms of? How are limestone and marble obtained?
Forms of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3). Obtained through mining or quarrying.
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What are the social, economical and environmental effects of mining?
social - provides jobs, economic - earns country lots of money, environmental - ruins natural beauty sights.
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What are the word and symbol equations for the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate?
Calcium Carbonate → Carbon Dioxide + Calcium Oxide (CaCO3 → CO2 + CaO).
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What is reinforced concrete made from?
Concrete and Steel.
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How is reinforced concrete made?
Steel supports are made by joining steel bars or cables and concrete is moulded around the gaps and left to harden.
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What are the properties of concrete when squashed and stretched?
Hard and strong when squashed, weak when stretched.
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What are the properties of steel when stretched?
Flexible and strong.
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Where does aluminium, brick and glass come from?
aluminium - an ore, brick - clay, glass - sand.
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How is copper extracted from ores? Why is this possible?
Is heated with carbon as copper is less reactive than carbon.
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What are the word and symbol equations for the extraction of copper?
Copper (II) Oxide + Carbon → Copper + Carbon Dioxide (2CuO + C → 2Cu + CO2).
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Explain what happens at the anode when purifying copper.
Anode is impure copper, it loses mass as the copper dissolves, it is oxidation, equation is Cu - 2e- → Cu2+.
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Explain what happens at the cathode when purifying copper.
Cathode of pure copper, gains mass as copper is deposited, it is reduction, equation is Cu2+ + 2e- → Cu.
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What is the electrolyte used in the electrolysis of copper?
Copper (II) Sulphate Solution.
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What are the benefits of recycling copper?
it is cheaper and uses less energy than extracting fresh copper from ores.
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What are the drawbacks of recycling copper?
the process of separation causes pollution and it would be difficult to separate due to the small amount of copper in electrical equipment.
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What is an alloy?
A mixture of two elements (sometimes more), one of which has to be a metal.
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What is the main metal in amalgam and what is a typical use of it?
Mercury and used in tooth fillings.
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What are the main metals in brass and what is a typical use of it?
Copper and zinc, used as a door knocker.
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What are the main metals in solder and what is a typical use of it?
Lead and tin, used to join electrical wires.
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Why are alloys stronger than normal metals?
It creates an irregular atom pattern that gives more support.
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What are spectacle frames made from and why is it special?
Made more nitinol and it is a shape-memory alloy. Made up of nickel and titanium. If it is bent, can be heated with an electrical current passing through it and will return to original shape.
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What are the main properties of iron?
More dense than aluminium, good electrical conductor, magnetic, malleable, corrodes easily.
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What are the main properties of aluminium?
Less dense than iron, good electrical conductor, non-magnetic, malleable, doesn't corrode easily.
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What causes rusting?
Water and air.
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What speeds up rusting?
Salt and acid rain.
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What prevents rusting?
Oil and paint.
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What is rust?
Hydrated iron (III) oxide.
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What is the word equation for rusting?
Iron + Oxygen + Water → Hydrated Iron (III) Oxide.
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Why does aluminium not rust?
The first layer of atoms react with oxygen, forming aluminium oxide which prevents any further reactions.
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What are the advantages to recycling cars?
Saves natural resources, reduces the problem of how to dispose of parts and materials.
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What are the word and symbol equations for ammonia?
Nitrogen + Hydrogen ↔ Ammonia (N2 + 3H2 ↔ 2NH3).
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What are the three main uses of ammonia?
Fertiliser, cleaning fluids, to make nitric acid.
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What are the conditions needed for ammonia?
Iron catalyst, 450℃ temperature, high pressure.
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What happens to the percentage yield and rate of reaction when the pressure is increased?
Percentage yield increases, rate of reaction decreases.
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What contributes to the cost of making a chemical?
Catalyst, starting materials, energy, labour.
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What is the word equation for a neutralisation reaction?
Acid + Alkali → Neutralised.
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What are the products of a metal oxide and acid reacting?
Salt + Water.
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What are the products of a metal hydroxide and acid reacting?
Salt + Water.
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What are the products of a carbonate and acid reacting?
Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide.
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What is the ionic equation for neutralisation?
H+ + OH- → H2O.
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Explain the process of eutrophication.
fertilisers wash into rivers, levels of nitrate/phosphate increase, causes algal bloom, plants are shaded by algae so don't get enough sunlight and die, aerobic decay bacteria feed on dead plants and use up all the oxygen, living organisms then die.
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What are the essential elements needed for plant growth?
Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium.
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Explain the process of solution mining.
Water is pumped into the deposit underground, NaCl dissolves in water and the brine is pumped to surface.
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What are the three products of the electrolysis of brine?
Hydrogen, Chlorine, Sodium Hydroxide Solution.
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What is the main use of hydrogen?
The manufacture of margarine. Used to convert liquid vegetable oils into solid vegetable fats that can be blended to make margarine.
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What is chlorine used for?
To sterilise water (kill harmful microorganisms in swimming pools and tap water).
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What are the two main uses of sodium hydroxide?
Reacts with vegetable oil to make soap, reacts with chlorine to make household bleach.
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What is the word equation for the reaction between sodium hydroxide and chlorine?
Sodium Hydroxide + Chlorine → Sodium Chloride + Water + Sodium Chlorate (Bleach).
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the lithosphere?

Back

the crust and the upper part of the mantle.

Card 3

Front

What are tectonic plates? Why do they move?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is continental drift?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens when an oceanic plate and a continental plate meet?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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