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Describe the steps involved in the fractional distillation of crude oil?
Heat is added, they evaporate and condense at certain levels.
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What are alkanes
General formula : CnH2n+2 Single bond, saturated
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What are alkenes
General formula: CnH2n, Double bond, unsaturated.
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Describe how volcanic activity lead to the form of oceans?
Water vapour was released and condensed.
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How are earthquakes formed?
Sudden movement of tectonic plates caused by convection currents.
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What is needed for hardening?
60 degreese and a nickel catalyst.
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Conditions to crack?
Catalyst, high temperature.
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Copper is now extracted form ores containing low percentages of copper compounds, why?
Not many big ones left around, coppers expensive, more demand for copper.
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Suggest a reason why it is difficult to dispose of waste rock.
Toxic, alot of it so its harder to dispose,takes up space.
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The extraction of pure copper is expensive, why?
Large amount of fuels needed, many steps.
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How does photomining remove copper compounds?
Plants absorb the copper and is burnt.
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Name a type of reaction that releases energy from a fuel?
Combustion.
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Fuels react with oxygen to produce co2. The reaction of a fuel with oxygen can produce another type of carbon. How and what is it?
Carbon monoxide - incomplete combustion.
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Give one advantage and one disadvantage of recycling a pen.
ADV: Saves us using resources DIS: costly to recycle as they are all made of different materials.
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Why are alloys used to make ballpoint pens?
Won't rust or corrode, stronger.
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Hydrocarbons and calcium carbonate contain locked up carbon dioxide. What is locked up carbon dioxide?
Carbon dioxide from the earths early atmosphere was trapped inside oceans and fossils.
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Why has the percentage of co2 changed?
Dissolved in oceans, plants take it in for photosynthesis.
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Describe the layered structure of the earth.
Crust, mantle, inner core and outer core.
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Describe wegeners idea of how continets formed.
There was a pangea and the continents moved apart due to convection currents.
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Describe how the process of fermentation is done?
Sugar is mixed with water and yeast and ethanol is produced.
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Why are rapeseed oil and ethanol carbon netural?
The plants took in co2 and produced oxygen. This carbon they took in is used when burning them.
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When fuels are used in a car engine, nitrogen oxide occurs. Why?
In the outside air and this reacts with the oxygen in the fuel.
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Name two substances when polyethene is burned in the air?
Carbon dioxide and water vapour.
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Explain the carbon cycle.
Calcium carbonate is thermally decomposed to produce carbon dioxide and calcium oxide. The calcium oxide has water added to it to produce calcium hydroxide. Carbon dioxide is added back in to make the calcium hydroxide back into calcium carbonate.
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What causes acid rain?
Sulfur dioxide.
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When limestone and clay are heated in a kiln, cement is produced. C02 comes out of the kiln. Why?
Heating limestone causes co2 and you get co2 from burning anything.
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Evaluate issues produced with ethanol compared to it being made by crude oil.
Ethanol - continus process. Crude oil causes damage by co2. Large amount of land is needed for the ethanol.
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Hydrogen + oxygen ------>
H20 (water)
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What is hydration?
Adding water or steam.
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Using plants to extract metal is what process?
Photomining.
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Why is low grade copper ores not extracted by smelting
Ground has little copper so you don't want to use too much electricity. It's also expensive.
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Give two reasons why scrap iron is used to displace copper.
Higher than copper. It's cheaper.
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Describe what happens to copper irons during electrolysis (they are cu2+ ions)
Copper ions move to negative electrode as opposites attract. They are reduced and copper is formed.
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Name the process the takes place when calcium carbonate is heated strongly?
Thermal decomposition.
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Name two types of hydro carbon.
Alkenes and alkanes.
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Why must we stop air getting into a reactor when it is cracking?
Oxygen could burn or react with the hydrocarbons.
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How do you extract metals less than carbon?
Reduction by carbon in a blast furnace.
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How do you extract metals more reactive than carbon?
Electroloysis.
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What makes the extraction of aluminium and titanium expensive?
Many stages and they need a lot of energy.
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We use alloys because...
Stronger.
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Why are aluminium and titanium so useful?
Low density, wont corrode.
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In percentages, give the chemicals in the atomsphere.
78% nitrogen. 22% oxygen and 0.03% other gases.
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Card 2

Front

What are alkanes

Back

General formula : CnH2n+2 Single bond, saturated

Card 3

Front

What are alkenes

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe how volcanic activity lead to the form of oceans?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How are earthquakes formed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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