C1 3.1 to C1 3.6

HideShow resource information
Where do metals come from?
The Earth's crust
1 of 79
What must we do before we can use a metal?
Chemically separate it from its compounds
2 of 79
What is an ore?
Ores contain the metal, or a compound of the metal, in a high enough concentration to make it worth extracting the metal
3 of 79
How do we know whether it is worth extracting a particular metal?
How easy it is to extra ct fro its ore, how much metal the ore contains
4 of 79
What does it mean if a metal is in its native state?
The metal is so unreactive that it can be found in the Earth as the metal element itself
5 of 79
Give two examples of metals in their native state.
Gold and silver
6 of 79
How do we extract a metal?
Depends on its place in the reactivity series
7 of 79
What is the reactivity series?
Lists the metals in order of their reactivity (most reactive at top and least reactive at bottom)
8 of 79
Write out the reactivity series in order.
Potassium, Sodium, Lithium, Calcium, Magnesium, Aluminium, (Carbon), Zinc, Iron, Tin, Lead, (Hydrogen), Copper, Silver, Gold and Platinum
9 of 79
What is the mnemonic for the reactvity series?
Please Send Lions, Cats, Monkeys And Zebras Into Lovely Hot Countries, Signed General Penguin
10 of 79
How does the reactivity series work?
A more reactive metal will displace a less reactive metal from its compounds.
11 of 79
What is carbon often used to displace?
Metal oxides
12 of 79
What is the equation for carbon displacing a metal oxide?
metal oxide + carbon --- metal + carbon dioxide
13 of 79
What do we call the removal of oxygen from a compound?
(Chemical) reduction
14 of 79
What is electrolysis used for?
To extract metals from their ores that are more reactive than carbon and cannot be ectracted using reduction
15 of 79
Is iron or carbon more reactive?
Carbon
16 of 79
How is iron ore reduced?
We extract iron from an iron ore by reducing it using carbon in a blast furnace
17 of 79
What is the reduction reaction equation for iron oxide?
iron oxide + carbon --- iron + carbon dioxide
18 of 79
Why is iron from a blast furnace not very useful?
Because it is pure iron which is too soft for it to be very useful
19 of 79
What is cast iron?
Molten iron
20 of 79
What is cast iron used for?
Used to make wood burning stoves, man-hole covers on roads and engines
21 of 79
What is an alloy?
A metal mixed with other elements
22 of 79
What is steel an alloy of?
Iron, carbon and other elements
23 of 79
What are the advantages of low carbon steels?
Cheapest, easily shaped , less likely to shatter on impact and used in: bodies of cars, knives, machinery, ships, containers and strctural steel for buildings
24 of 79
What are the disadvantages of low carbon steels?
Not strong
25 of 79
What are the advantages of high carbon steels?
Very hard/ strong, used to make tools and cutters
26 of 79
What are the disadvantages of high carbon steels?
Brittle
27 of 79
What are the advantages of low alloy steels?
Produces a steel well-suited to a particular use
28 of 79
What are the disadvantages of low alloy steels?
More expensive than carbon steels
29 of 79
What are the advantages of high alloy steels?
Stronger, ductile, weldable, used to make suspension bridges
30 of 79
What are the disadvantages of high alloy steels?
Even more expensive
31 of 79
What are stainless steels?
Chromium-nickel steels
32 of 79
What are the advantages of stainless steels?
Resistant to corrosion, do not rust, hard, strong, used to make cooking utensils and cutlery
33 of 79
What are the disadvantages of stainless steels?
Expensive, not malleable
34 of 79
Why are aluminium and titanium so useful?
Because they resist corrosion, are strong and have a low density
35 of 79
What are the properties of aluminium that make it useful?
Light, low density, good conductor, easily shaped, does not corrode easily, alloys
36 of 79
Why don't aluminum and titanium corrode?
The atoms on the surfaces of the metals react with oxygen and form a thin layer of aluminium/titanium oxide which stops any further corrosion
37 of 79
What is aluminium used for?
Drinks cans, cooking oil, saucepans, bicycles, aeroplanes, space vehicles, cables
38 of 79
How do we extract aluminium?
Electrolysis- an electric current is passed through molten aluminium oxide at high temperatures to break it down
39 of 79
What are the problems with electrolysis?
Expensive, needs a lot of electricity
40 of 79
What is an aluminium ore called?
Bauxite
41 of 79
What are the properties of titanium?
Very strong, resistant to corrosion, high melting point, not very dense
42 of 79
What are the uses of titanium?
Aircraft, bicycles, jet engines, nuclear reactors, replacement hip joints
43 of 79
How do we extract titanium?
Titanium ore processed, sodium/magnesium extracted by electrolysis, sodium/magnesium displace titanium
44 of 79
Why are aluminium and titanium expensive?
Extracting them from their ores involves many stages and requires large amounts of energy
45 of 79
Where do we extract most of our copper from?
Copper-rich ores (limited resource)
46 of 79
How can we remove copper from the ore?
By using sulphuric acid or smelting
47 of 79
Give an example of a copper-rich ore.
Chalocite
48 of 79
What is smelting?
Heating copper very strongly in air to produce crude copper which the goes through electrolysis
49 of 79
How do we use sulphuric acid to remove copper from its ore?
Mix sulphuric acid with the copper ore to produce a copper sulphate solution before extracting the copper by adding scrap iron
50 of 79
What is copper purified by?
Electrolysis
51 of 79
Why do we need copper to be purified?
Because impure copper is not useful and not a good conductor
52 of 79
Processing copper uses huge amounts of...
electricity, money and energy
53 of 79
Iron is more reactive than copper so it can ...... copper from its solutions.
Displace
54 of 79
iron + copper sulphate ---
iron sulphate + copper
55 of 79
How does electrolysis work?
There are two electrodes, one +ve and one -ve, surrounded by an electrolyte (liquid to conduct the electricity) which contains free ions. Metal ions are +vely charged so they are attracted and deposited at the -ve electrode, impurities dropped at +ve
56 of 79
Why is electrolysis good for extracing copper?
Gives very pure copper which can be used to make electrical wiring
57 of 79
Why do we need new ways of extracting copper?
Copper-rich ores are limited, demand for copper is growing, shortages of copper in future
58 of 79
What are the two new ways of extracting copper?
Bioleaching and phytomining
59 of 79
What is bioleaching?
Uses bacteria to separate copper from copper sulphide, bacteria get energy from bond between copper and sulphur, leachate (solution produced) contains copper and copper can be extracted by filtering
60 of 79
What is phytomining?
Growing plants in soil that contains copper, plants can't get rid of it so builds up in leaves, plants are harvested dried and burned in a furnace and copper is collected from ashes in furnace
61 of 79
What are the advantages and disadvantages of bioleaching/phytomining?
Less damaging to the environment but are much slower
62 of 79
What are transition metals?
Metallic elements found in the central block of the periodic table
63 of 79
What are the properties of transition metals?
Good conductors, strong but can also be bent and hammered into different shapes
64 of 79
What do we use transition metals for?
Buildings, cars, trains, heating systems, electrical wiring
65 of 79
What is copper useful for?
pipes, wires
66 of 79
How do we make bronze?
Mixing copper with tin
67 of 79
Why do we use bronze?
Ship's propellers because of its toughness and resistance to corrosion
68 of 79
How do we make brass?
Mixing copper and zinc
69 of 79
Why do we use brass?
Musical instruments because it can be hammered and bent into intricate shapes
70 of 79
Why are aluminium alloys useful?
Wide range, lots of different properties, aircraft, armour plating on military vehicles
71 of 79
How do we make gold and aluminium harder?
By adding other elements to them
72 of 79
Why do we alloy gold with copper?
So it can be used in jewellery as pure gold wears away easily but also we can get different shades of gold
73 of 79
What issues arise in exploiting metal ores?
Open cast mining scars the landscape, creates noise and dust, destroys habitats, waste rock, groundwater can become acidic, sulphur dioxide that escapes causes acid rain
74 of 79
Why is it important to recycle metals?
Saves energy, money, our limited metal ores/fossil fuels and pollution from extracting metals is reduced
75 of 79
Why is acid rain bad?
Affects human health, makes water acidic
76 of 79
What is the most commonly used metal and what is it often used for?
Steel and in the construction industry
77 of 79
What are the benefits of using metals in construction?
Copper is a good electrical conductor for wiring and not corrosive for pipes, lead can be bent easily so for sealing joints, steel is strong for girders and scaffolding, aluminium alloys are corrosive resistant
78 of 79
What are the drawbacks of using metals in construction?
Iron and steel can rust which severely weaken structures, exploitation of metal ores causes pollution and uses up limited resources, metals are more expensive than other materials like concrete
79 of 79

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What must we do before we can use a metal?

Back

Chemically separate it from its compounds

Card 3

Front

What is an ore?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How do we know whether it is worth extracting a particular metal?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does it mean if a metal is in its native state?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

Pony69

1st

Pony69

The mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell

San1234

very good 

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all Extracting metals /The reactivity series resources »