C1.3 - Metals and their Uses

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  • C1.3 - Metals and their Uses
    • 3.1
      • Metals are usually found in the Earth's crust.
        • they are often combined chemically with other elements such as oxygen.
      • An ore contains enough metal to make it worth extracting the metal.
      • The method we use to extract a metal depends on its reactivity.
      • Unreactive metals are found in the Earth as the metal.
      • The oxides of metals less reactive than carbon can be reduced using carbon.
    • 3.2
      • Iron oxide is reduced in a blast furnace to make iron/
      • Iron from the blast furnace is too brittle for many uses.
      • Most iron is converted into alloys called steels.
      • Steels contain carefully controlled quantities of carbon and other elements.
    • 3.3
      • Aluminium and titanium resist corrosion.
        • They also have low densities compared with other strong metals.
      • Aluminium and titanium cannot be extracted from their oxides using carbon.
      • Aluminium and are expensive because extracting them involves many stages and requires large amounts of energy.
    • 3.4
      • Most copper is extracted from copper-rich ores by smelting.
      • Copper can be purified by electrolysis.
      • Bioleaching and phytomining are new ways to extract copper from low-grade ores.
      • Copper can be obtained from solutions of copper salts by displacement or electrolysis.
    • 3.5
      • The transition metals are found in the central block of the periodic table.
      • Transition metals have properties that make them useful for building and making things.
      • Most of the metals we use are alloys.
    • 3.6
      • There are social, economic and environmental issues associated with exploiting metal ores.
      • Recycling saves energy and limited resources.
      • There are drawbacks as well as benefits from the use of metals in structures.

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