C1 Key Concepts of Chemistry- SPECIFICATION



● matter is composed of tiny particles called atoms and there are about 100 different naturally occurring types of atoms called elements

● elements show periodic relationships in their chemical and physical properties

● these periodic properties can be explained in terms of the atomic structure of the elements

● atoms bond by either transferring electrons from one atom to another or by sharing electrons

● the shapes of molecules (groups of atoms bonded together) and the way giant structures are arranged is of great importance in terms of the way they behave

● there are barriers to reaction so reactions occur at different rates

● chemical reactions take place in only three different ways:

o proton transfer

o electron transfer

o electron sharing

● energy is conserved in chemical reactions so can therefore be neither created nor destroyed. 


Core practicals: 

2.11 Investigate the composition of inks using simple distillation and paper chromatography

3.6 Investigate the change in pH on adding powdered calcium hydroxide/calcium oxide to a fixed volume of dilute hydrochloric acid

3.17 Investigate the preparation of pure, dry hydrated copper sulfate crystals starting from copper oxide including the use of a water bath 3.31 Investigate the electrolysis of copper sulfate solution with inert electrodes and copper electrodes 7.1 Investigate the effects of changing the conditions of a reaction on the rates of chemical reactions by:  a measuring the production of a gas (in the reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble chips)  b observing a colour change (in the reaction between sodium thiosulfate and hydrochloric acid)

Atomic structure 

1.1 Describe how the Dalton model of an atom has changed over time because of the discovery of subatomic particles 

1.2 Describe the structure of an atom as a nucleus containing protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons in shells 

1.3 Recall the relative charge and relative mass of:

a a proton

b a neutron

c an electron 

1.4 Explain why atoms contain equal numbers of protons and electrons 

1.5 Describe the nucleus of an atom as very small compared to the overall size of the atom 

1.6 Recall that most of the mass of an atom is concentrated in the nucleus 

1.7 Recall the meaning of the term mass number of an atom 

1.8 Describe atoms of a given element as having the same number of protons in the nucleus and that this number is unique to that element 

1.9 Describe isotopes as different atoms of the same element containing the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei 

1.10 Calculate the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons in atoms given the atomic number and mass number 

1.11 Explain how the existence of isotopes results in relative atomic masses of some elements not being whole numbers 

1.12 Calculate the relative atomic mass of an element from the relative masses and abundances of its isotopes 

The periodic table 

1.13 Describe how Mendeleev arranged the elements, known at that time, in a periodic table by using properties…


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