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  • Created by: Katie
  • Created on: 31-03-15 17:37
What is the full name for ATP?
Adenosin Triffosffad
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Where is ATP's energy stored?
In the P-P bond
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What enzyme is needed to phosphorylate ADP to ATP?
ATPsynthetas
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What enzyme is used to release energy by converting ATP to ADP?
ATPas
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Where does oxidized phosphorylation occur?
Mitochondrial membranes
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Where does photophosphorylation occur?
The thylacoid membranes
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State 3 advantages of ATP as an energy source compared to glucose
Provides a universal energy currency for many reactions in every organism. Releases energy a little at a time where necessary. Only one enzyme required to release energy from ATP
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Give examples of where energy from ATP is used
Muscle Contractions, Active Transport, Biosynthesis, Neural Transmission
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How much ATP can a resting person use an hour?
up to 2kg
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What coenzyme is the most important hydrogen carrier in living systems?
NAD
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What is mitochondria?
The metabolic powerhouses of cells that include biochemical mechanisms
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What size are mitochondria?
length= 1.5-10um, width= 0.25-1.0um
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What respiration steps occur in the mitochondria?
Krebs cycle and the electron transfer chain
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What are the 4 steps of respiration?
Glycolysis, link reaction, Krebs cycle & the electron transfer chain
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How many ATP are produced through glycolysis?
8
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4 ATP are produced during Glycolysis directly from phosphate compounds, what is this process called?
substrate level phosphorylisation
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What is the final product of glycolysis?
2 molecules of Pyruvate
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Where does glycolysis occur?
The cytoplasm
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What is the final product of the link reaction?
2x Coenzyme Acetyl A
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Where does the krebs cycle occur?
Mitochondrial matrix
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How many times does the krebs cycle occur for each glucose molecule?
2
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How many ATP are produced through the Krebs cycle?
24
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What is the total number of ATP produce through respiration?
38
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How many ATP are produced through anaerobic respiration?
2
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Why does the electron transfer chain fail during anaerobic respiration?
It's not possible to eradicate hydrogen through bonding it with ocsigen
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What is the only step of aerobic respiration that can occur during anaerobic respiration?
Glycolysis
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Name the two kinds of anaerobic respiration
Alcoholic fermentation and Lactate path
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What happens to the lactic acid produced by humans from anaerobic respiration (during exercise for example)?
Lactic acid is transported away by the blood to the liver where it is converted back to pyruvate
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What is the definition of photosynthesis?
A process that occurs in the chloroplast where chlorophyll captures energy from light to use for converting CO2 and water to glucose and ocsigen
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What are the 4 main photosynthetic pigments in the chloroplast?
Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotene and santhoffyl
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Give examples of micronutrients
Copper, manganese
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Give examples of macronutrients
Potassium, Sodium, Magnesium, Calcium
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What effect does nitrogen deficiency have on plants?
Dwarfed growth due to lack of nucleic acids and clorosis due to lack of chlorphyll
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What effect does magnesium deficiency have on plants?
chlorosis and death
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State the definition of homeostasis
The tendency of a cell,organ or organism to control the internal condition of the body usually through a feedback system
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What waste product do mammals produce?
Urea
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Give an advantage of urea as a waste product
Less toxic than uric acid and ammonia so it's possible to store it safely up to a significant concentration
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What waste product do freshwater fish produce?
Ammonia
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Give an advantage of producing ammonia for fish
Although it has a high toxicity it dissolves easily in water
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What waste product do birds produce?
Uric acid
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Give an advantage of uric acid as a waste product for birds
It has a low toxicity and it's solid so it does not require much water to dispose of it which means that the bird doesn't have to fly with a bladder full of water so it is easier to fly as it is lighter
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What are podocytes?
epithelial cells that line the inner surface of the bowman cup
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Where does ultra-filtration occur?
The glomerulus
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What substances leave the blood during ultra-filtration?
Glucose, amino acids, NaCl, H2O, & urea
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What process occurs in the spiral proximal tubule?
Selective reabsorption
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What hormone controls how much water is reabsorbed during selective reabsorption?
ADH
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What kind of nervous system does a hydra possess?
Nervenet
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List the three neurons in the mammalian nervous system
Motor neuron, sensory neuron, connective neuron
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What is the dendrites purpose?
Transport information to the cell body
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What is the purpose of the acson?
Transport stimulus away from the cell body
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What is the purpose of the Schwann cells?
Cells full of myelin that sheath the acson and work like an electronic isolator
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What is the definition of a reflex?
An involuntary, defensive action. It is faster than a voluntary action because it happens subconsciously
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List the 2 most common neurotransmitters
Acetylcoline and Noradrenaline
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Do plants have a nervous system?
No
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What is the most important factor to affect plants blooming timing?
Photoperiodism
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List the three kinds of plants
Long-day plants, short-day plants, neutral-day plants
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What is a phytochrome?
the light-receptor that's responsible for absorbing light
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Where is ATP's energy stored?

Back

In the P-P bond

Card 3

Front

What enzyme is needed to phosphorylate ADP to ATP?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What enzyme is used to release energy by converting ATP to ADP?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where does oxidized phosphorylation occur?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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