BY2 Definitions

Biodiversity
Measure of the number of different species on the planet
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Species
A group of organisms which can interbreed under natural conditions to produce fertile offspring
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Distribution Of Species
The number of species per square km increases as one moves from the poles to the equator
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Extinction
When the last individual of a species has died out and no evidence of any surviving individuals can be found after extensive surveys
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Genetic Bottleneck
Reduction of genetic diversity in a population (offspring have same genetics making them vulnerable to disease and mutation)
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Species Conservation
Planned preservation of wildlife to maintain genetic variety
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Evolution
The emergence of new species from existing ones over a very long period of time
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Adaptive Radiation
The emergence of new species from a common ancestor (can occur due to selection pressures)
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Population
Group of individuals from the same species
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Fossil
Preserved remains/impressions/traces of animals, plants and other organisms that lived millions of years ago
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Paleantology
The study of plants and animals in the geological past. As represented bby fossil remains
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Mass Extinction
Large proportion of a known species go extinct within a short time period
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Taxonomy
Scientific study of the diversity of living organisms
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Classification
Places order upon the diversity of life. Classification of living organisms into groups of manageable size
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Homologous Feature
A feature that has different functions in different organisms but is similar in structure so may have a common origin
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Analagous Feature
Have a similar function yet aren't derived from a common ancestor
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Gas Exchange
Process by which oxygen reaches cells and carbon dioxide is removed from them
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Respiration
Series of chemical reactions which result in the release of energy in the form of ATP
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Ventilation
The process of moving the respiratory medium (air or water) over the respiratory surface to create a concentration gradient
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Counter Current Flow
Water flows across the gill plates in the opposite direction to blood flow
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Parallel Flow
Water flows between the gill plates in the same direction to blood flow
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Transpiration
Evaporation of water from inside the leaf through the stomata and into the atmosphere
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Translocation
Transport of soluble organic molecules produced by photosynthesis in the phloem tissue. Bidirectional movement
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Source
Region where photosynthates are produced and exported
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Sink
Region where photosynthates are stored or used for growth
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Systole
Contraction of cardiac muscle
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Diastole
Relaxation of cardiac muscle
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Myogenic
Capable of rhythmic contractions and relaxations without external stimulation (by nerves)
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Affinity
One molecule having a chemical attraction for another
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Saturated
Percentage of oxygen bound with haemoglobin compared with the maximum possible
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Dissociation
Release of oxygen to form haemoglobin
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Association
Uptake of oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin
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Partial Pressure
Concentration (PO2/PCO2)
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Photosynthesis
Build up of complex organic molecules from simple inorganic molecules. Sunlight is the source of energy
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Chemosynthesis
Synthesis of complex organic compounds using energy derived in reactions
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Peristalsis
Contractions of the gut wall by circular and longitudinal muscles
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Diastema
Gap between the cheek and the front teeth in a herbivore. The tongue moves cut grass to the large grinding surfaces of the cheek teeth
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Ruminants
Animals such as cows or sheep. Have a four chambered stomach which houses mutualistic bacteria in the rumen.
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Parasite
An organisms which lives in or on the surface of another organism refered to as the host. Host always suffers harm to a degree- often death.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A group of organisms which can interbreed under natural conditions to produce fertile offspring

Back

Species

Card 3

Front

The number of species per square km increases as one moves from the poles to the equator

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

When the last individual of a species has died out and no evidence of any surviving individuals can be found after extensive surveys

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Reduction of genetic diversity in a population (offspring have same genetics making them vulnerable to disease and mutation)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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