Britain 1785-1870 - 1832&67 reform and topic of industrialisation and protest

Revision for all four themes of the new edexcel AS history course Britain 1785-1870:democracy, protest and reform 

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How many boroughs were disenfranchised from the 1832 reform act?
56 boroughs
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How many boroughs lost one of their two MP's as a result of the 1832 reform act?
30 boroughs
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How many new borough constituencies were created as a result of the 1832 reform act?
42 new borough constituencies
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After the reform act of 1832 what was the size of the new electorate in Britain?
It rose to 18% of the male population
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What was the difference in distribution of MP's between the North and the South after 1832?
The less populated south had 370 MP's whilst the more densely populated North only had 120 MP's
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What was the issue with the 1832 reform act?
The wider public was still not represented and the power still remained with the aristocratic landowners
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Under Lord Palmerston, what was the main issue within government in 1859?
Foreign policy took priority and the need for reform was ignored
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Who raised the reform argument again whilst the liberals were in power?
MP John Bright who projected the message about the concerns for the rights of the working classes
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What effect did the American Civil war have in shifting attitudes in favor of reform?
There was a cotton famine in Britain and many workers were laid of in Lacashire, William Gladstone saw their mature attitude and that the workers even supported anti-slavery campaigns during this time and believed that they deserved better
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What was the role of Benjamin Disraeli in bringing about the second reform act of 1867?
As a modern politician he introduced his own bill in 1867 for reform, however his interests were invested in the success of his party and winning the next general election, not the welfare of the people
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How many of the old boroughs received an extra seat as a result of the second reform act?
6 boroughs
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How many boroughs were disenfranchised as a result of the 1867 reform act?
7 boroughs
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How many seats were distributed as a result of the second reform act?
25 seats were given to the counties, 20 went to the new boroughs, 6 went to old boroughs and one was reserved for the university of London
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How many seats were taken from boroughs as a result of the second reform act?
45 seats were taken from boroughs with less than 10,000 people
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What were the new guidelines for being able to vote?
All male householders (if had lived in homes for a year) worth at least £10 a year could vote aswell as all male owners or leaseholders of land worth £5 a year were given the vote
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What was the impact of the act on Disraeli?
He witnessed electoral defeat in 1868
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What did the electoral defeat of Disraeli prove?
That the working class had their own minds and would vote as they saw fit for who they honestly believed would benefit the country the most
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What benefits were there for the British political system?
It became more honest and professional, as with 2.46 million voters there was little room for corruption
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Why did the liberal party enjoy better success at the 1868 election?
Because they understood the need for campaigning, whereas Disraeli believed he could win over the people by simply issuing a printed election address
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What did the new reform act promote?
A more diverse electorate
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What did the new qualification for voting extend to?
It extended to many of the urban skilled working class, the electorate rose to 1/3 of the adult male population
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What did the Act see in terms of power shift?
The power shifted from the wealthiest areas of land to the largest such as cities like Liverpool and Manchester
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What problem did the 1867 reform act not resolve for the Midlands and the North?
They were still largely under-represented
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What percentage of the population did the residency clause still discriminate against?
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Why did people turn to the Goldsmiths to deposit their wealth in?
Because Charles I had stole from the royal mint in 1640
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What did people receive in return for depositing their gold at the goldsmiths?
They received receipts and bills of exchange which marked the first signs of paper currency.
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In what year were county banks permitted to issue bank notes (when was the clause removed)?
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What were the benefits of an improved banking system?
Employers could pay wages from a central fund, as well as financial transactions becoming safer and easier
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When was the clause removed allowing joint stock banks to develop?
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When and what was the first joint stock bank?
October 1826, the Lancashire Banking Company
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What did the 1833 Act permit?
That joint stock banks in London would be able to issue cheques
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By 1866 how many joint stock banks were there in England?
There were 154 joint stock banks with 850 branches
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When was the Bank of England established?
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What did banking provide for the economy?
A source of capital that allowed men to establish themselves in a business
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What happened to cottage industries because of improvements to banking?
They were able to become large scale operations which could generate significant profits
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What was the change in imports in cotton?
By 1833 the cotton industry was importing over 300 million pounds of cotton and employing around 833,000 people
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What did landowners in rural areas do because of the new banking system
They invested in urban areas, which allowed both urban and rural areas to develop alongside eachother. They invested in things such as railways and docks eg. in 1839 the Marquess of Bute built the Cardiff docks
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What was known as the middle class?
The men who took advantage of opportunities and pioneered the development of large scale industry
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What were the majority of middle class men?
Small factory owners or merchants that profited from the expanding markets
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What rise did the middle class see?
Between 1816 and 1831 it had grown by around 75%, rising from 160,000 to more than 214,000
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What principles did the middle class men sought to apply?
The principles of free trade which had been advocated by Adam Smith in the 18th Century
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Who was Richard Arkwright?
The man who invented the water frame, had early success, earned enough money to build several cotton mills after starting off as the son of a poor merchant and died with a knighthood and small fortune of £500,000
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Who was Richard Trevithick?
Had the idea of putting steam engine on wheels but died penniless after making bad business decisions
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What did this new hard nosed, strong willed middle class bring about?
The masters and servants mentality
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Where were the original centres of economic commerce?
In the counties, when the economy was dependent on land and agriculture
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Where did the economic centres of commerce begin to shift towards?
They began to shift to areas with better transport links where goods could easily be exported eg Lancashire had good trasnport links with areas like Liverpool which was a major docking area
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Why did commerce move?
Because there was a large demand from technology, the earliest machines needed water and were therefore built around rivers however the use of steam meant that coal became more important and so there was a move to the Midlands, North, SWales, ClydeVa
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What is an example of how farming technology had also improved?
Andrew Meikles Threshing Machine (1789)
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What was the difference in mechanisation?
In the south it led to a reduced need for a labour, however in the North it created a demand for it.
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What was the difference in populations of cities by 1851?
There were 29 major cities and 9 of them had over 100,000 inhabitants, with London having a population of 2.3 million people
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What did improved transport lead to?
A more mobile workforce
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What did the increasing movement to cities and there population growth lead to?
An immediate demand for housing, these were often built by factory owners themselves, being close to factories in a 'back to back' structure
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What did the growth of cities and towns give back to the people?
It gave them stability and allowed them to settle down so that communities were also able to develop an grow
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What was the population of Manchester by 1831?
It had reached 182,000 compared to 25,000 in 1772, this was closely followed by Glasgow, Birmingham, Leeds and Bradford
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What was the traditional government attitude?
That the state didn't, and didn't need to, play a huge role in industrialisation
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What was the realistic government attitude?
That the British state did actively engage in industrialisation, there was considerate intervention when the government saw fit
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What did the government remove that slowed down the pace of profiteering?
They removed obstacles such as the Combinations Act in 1799/1800 and the Masters and Servants Act 1829
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What did these government attitudes compliment?
They complimented private industry, and allowed for the development of private industry such as the Municipals Corp. Act in 1835 which removed barriers to water supply and railways
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What did the 1844 Railway Regulation Act allow?
It allowed for railways to be nationalised
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What did the government do, however, that would support a Laissez faire attitude?
They repealed the Statute of Artificers 1813(regulated wages and working conditions) and repealed the Corn Laws in 1846
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Why did housing lead to respiratory problems?
Because housing was cramped, dark, with a lack of ventilation and used candles and oil lamps that contained led.
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What issues were there regarding sanitation?
There was a strain upon local infrastructure especially water supply and drainage was insuffficient
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What was the issues with cesspits?
That all communal privies were emptied into them, they could sometimes seep through the ground, contaminate the water supplies and spread disease
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What viruses spread due to a lack of sanitation?
There were outbreaks of influenza and cholera, the first outbreak was in Sunderland in 1831 which spread killing 32,000
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What was meant by towns becoming two tiered?
They allowed the working classses to live in cramped city centres whilst the middle class had more money and were able to buy more expensive houses in the outskirts
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What was the name of the town that was attempted to be the perfect model of an industrialisied Britain?
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What was meant by the impersonal environment of the factories?
It meant that workers were crammed in (all about making a profit) the nosie was relentless, there were long hours and the conditions were extremely unsafe
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What was the issue with the working hours reform?
The reforms only affected the working hours of women and children, men never worked less than 10 hours
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WHy was there a high injury rate before 1844?
Becuase there was no safeguards in place to protect workers
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Despite improvements such as the davy lamp, what remained within the mines?
It was a dangerous place to work
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By 1850 how many tonnes of coal were being mined, and to what depth were miners reqiured to go?
55 million tonnes were being mined in 1850 compared to 6 million in 1770. The mines went from excavating 90m deep to 300m deep by 1850
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What were the hour requirements for working in a mine?
It was a 12 hour day, six days a week
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What was the problem with miner employment until 1844?
Workers tended not to be permanently employed, but 'bound' for agreeed lengths of time which meant no fixed wage
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What did the working counditions encourage for working women?
It encouraged them to stand up, get their own voice and fuelled the fire for later suffrage
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What were the problems with the working conditions for women?
They worked in all areas and took on the jobs that men wouldnt (windlass in mines) and they recieved 1/2 of what men earned alongside having to maintain their homes after long working hours
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In 1821 what percentage of the working population were under 20?
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What roles were children helpful in?
Jobs like scavangers
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Why were injuries common?
Becuase there was a lack of care for children in the workplace
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What is an example of a child injury in the workplace?
Martha Appleton, Wigan, 1859, caught her hands in a machine and severed her fingers and as a result she was fired
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In 1842 what fraction of the mining workforce was under 19?
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What did the mining act of 1842 introduced?
That women and children under the age of 10 could no longer work underground
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What age was the cap riased to in 1850?
The age of 12
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What were changes in working coniditions commonly linked with?
They were often linked to a middle class concern for respectability rather than any real sense of humanity
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When and where did luddite protests begin?
Luddite protests began in Nottingham 1811 and lasted for six years. They were led by Ned Ludd who destroyed knitting frames after being whipped in 1779
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What machines was there agressive action taken against?
Steam powered looms, by february 1812 1,000 frames were destroyed at a cost between £6-10,000
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When was the Frame Breaking Act passed and what were the terms of it?
It was passed in 1812 and made the act punishable by death, this heavy approach from the government can be seen as protection of economic interests and fear of revolution
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What happened at Rawford mill?
It was ran by WIlliam Cartwright and soldiers were brought in to protect machines. In Aril 1812 the mill was attacked and 2 luddites were killed
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What happened later in April 1812 regarding Luddites?
The anti-luddite mill owner William Horsfal was shot outside of Huddersfield, the luddite leaders were executed
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What had happened to Luddism by 1817?
It was in decline and effectively over
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Why and when did the swing riots come about?
In 1830 there was growing agricultural discontent, followed by 2 consecutive bad harvests
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What led to the reduced opportunites or work?
The fact that in winter there was less demand for work combined with the introduction of the new threshing machine
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What action did the swing rioters take?
Same method as luddites; they wrote threatening letters, bruned haybricks and destroyed threshing machines
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How many people were involved?
16 counties witnessed trouble, 1,976 people were arrested, 19 were executed and 800 were acquitted
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When did the swing riots cease?
Early 1831
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Why was a more thoughtful and moderate means of protest adopted?
Becuase the Luddites and Swing RIots had failed and the working class needed a better chance of success
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SInce what year had there been attempts to protect younger apprentices?
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What did Whig MP John Hobhouse aim to do in 1852?
He sought to restrict the working days of children
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What action was taken in 1830?
Workers across the Pennines organised themselves such as Richard Oastler and George Bull
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What did the 10 Hours Movement seek out to do?
To collaborate with unions through petitioning and mass meetings
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What was the driving force behind the 10 Hours movement?
Moral concerns
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Where did the success of the campaign lie?
In sober campaigns and the level of empathy that the campaign could draw to itself
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Which political party groups believed in the need for factory reform?
The whigs and the tories
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What was the whigs viewpoint on facotry reform?
MP's like John Hobhouse and THomas Macauley who believed that bad health led to a bad workforce
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What was the torie viewpoint on factory reform?
Michael Sadler and Lord Ashley simply believed it was the right thing to do
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what was a strength and a weakness of the support group?
Its diversity
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What was the opposition to facotry reform?
Free trade, It was needed to maintain competition and Nassau Senior said 'profit is only made in the last hour of the day'
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What was implemented in 1833?
The 1st effective piece of legislation, it reflected a more paternalistic government as no child under 9 could work, 9-13 had a 48 hour week, 13-18 12 hour day and 2 hours of education for under 13's
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What was also set up as a result of the 1833 factory reform act?
The inspectorate of factories (4 men oversseing 4000 mills) however this left open the possibilty for further reform
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What did the tory government bring in 1844?
Further refrom
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What were the terms of the 1844 factory reform act?
the working hours for women were restricted to the same as children (12 hours) and moderate safety precautions were implemented
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When was the 10 hour working day introduced?
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What was implemented in the 1850 reform?
The working day was restricted to certain times, 6-6 in summer, 7-7 in winter
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In what year were these laws extended to other industries?
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What did Edwin CHadwick published that influenced the government in 1820 because of his findings?
'The sanitary condition of the labouring population of Great Britain' in 1842
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What was the Health Of Towns Association?
It was brought in, in 1844 which promoted the creation of a public health act which was implemented in 1848
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What did the public health act of 1848 follow?
An outbreak of typhus
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What were the terms of the Public Helath Act?
There was a central board set up, dresh water, drainage, sewers, however it had little immediate effect and only came in where mortality was above 23/1000
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When was the Burial Acts passed?
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when was the sanitary act passed?
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Card 2


How many boroughs lost one of their two MP's as a result of the 1832 reform act?


30 boroughs

Card 3


How many new borough constituencies were created as a result of the 1832 reform act?


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Card 4


After the reform act of 1832 what was the size of the new electorate in Britain?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What was the difference in distribution of MP's between the North and the South after 1832?


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