- Created by: rachelmmahoney
- Created on: 12-01-17 18:02
Pre-1832 only the rich could vote.
Post-1832 middle class enfranchised.
Absence of political power limited choices for the working class.
'Popular protest' - collective protest by working/middle classes of society at a local or even national level to express a view in attempt to change things.
Distribution of Power
- A new 'middle class' emerged with the new industries with wealth based on industry.
- Urban not rural.
- Resented lack of political power.
- Bottem end of the scale: semi or unskiled industrial workers
Living Conditions in the Towns
- Industrialisation had a major effect upon the health of the nation.
- Population increase from 10 million in 1801 to 32.5 million in 1901.
- Urban centres (eg Manchester) had increasing population due to movement of agricultural labourers seeking work.
- Could not cope with increasing size.
- Local govt unable to administer the new towns effectively.
- Poor town planning, overcrowding and generally poor living conditions.
- Lack of clean water, disease was widespread and cholera was recurrent.
- Industrial system was different in two crucial ways:
- working day was far more rigidly organised
- major loss in independence
- Generally poor conditions.
- Craft skills superseded by machines.
- Low pay.
- Child labour.
Ideas of Jeremy Bentham
- "The greatest happiness of the greatest number of people."
- This could be achieved in 2 ways:
- Government and administration had to be made as efficient as possible. Anything inefficient must be modernised.
- Laissez-faire guiding principle of government. A minimum amount of interference within the lives of individuals.
Reactions to Social and Working conditions
- A desire for greater efficiency emerged which prompted reform.
- Social reform was necessary as British society had very poor living and working conditions - needed to maintain political stability.
- Lower class still lacked major political power.
- Reforms dictated from above.
- Needed to improve education as there was a need for more advanced techniques and skilled labour to maintain Britain's economic position.
What Causes Popular Protest?
- Economic problems - low wages, industrial/agricultural depression
- Political concerns - lack of vote, political context
- Social issues - poverty, living/working conditions, social class
- Religious conflict - issues for Catholics and Non-Comformists
- Local/regional issues - local grievances
- Government action - changes in policy or the law