bonding, structure and the properties of matter

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what are ionic substances
ionic substances are made from a giant lattice of positive and negative ions
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what is a giant lattice
a regular structure containing a massive number of particles that continues in all directions throughout the structure
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how are ionic compounds formed
when a metal reacts with a non metal
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how are ionic substances held together
positive and negative ions are attracted to eachother because the opposite charges attract. ionic bonding is the electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions.
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what is a dot and cross diagram and what are its advantages/disadvantages
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what is a 2D space filling structure and what are its advantages/disadvantages
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what is a 3D space filling structure and what are its advantages/disadvantages
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what is a ball and stick structure and what are its advantages/disadvantages
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use the structure of an ionic substance to explain its melting and boiling point
ionic substances have extremely high boiling points as it takes allot of energy to overcome the strong attraction between the positive and negative ions
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use the structure of an ionicsubstance to explain its electrical conductivity
ionic substances are made of ions, but as they are solids, the ions cant move to they cant conduct electricity. when melted or dissolved in water however, the ions can move and carry charge, so they can conduct.
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what are the complex positive ions
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what are the complex negative ions
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draw a dot and cross diagram for the reaction of potassium (K) and sulfur (S)
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what are mollecular substances
neutral particles joined together by covalent bonds (two shared electrons that join atoms together)
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what are mollecular substances made of
non metal and non metal
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how is the structure of mollecular substances
it is made of many identical molecules that are not joined to eachother. within each mollecule, the atoms are joined by very strong forces, but the mollecules arent bonded to eachother they are held together by weak intermolleclar forces
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use the structure of mollecular substances to describe its melting and boiling point
as mollecular substances arent bonded together but are held together by weak inter mollecular forces which are easy to overcome, they have extremely low melting points
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how does the size of the mollecules affect the melting point
the larger the mollecule the higher the melting point
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use the structure of mollecular substances to describe its electrical conductivity
mollecules are electrically neutral which means they do not conduct electricity at all
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what is the difference between mollecular formula and empirical formula
the mollecular formula gives the number of atoms of each element in each mollecule whereas in the empirical formula givess the simpelest ratio of the atoms of each elemet in the substance
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what are all the ways to show how covalent bonds join
dot and cross diagram showing all electron+shell circles of only outer shell circle, dot and cross diagram showing only outer shell electrons, stick diagram, ball and stick diagram, spac filling diagram
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what are the diagrams for all the ways to show how covalent bonds join
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what is the stick diagram and dot ad cross diagram for O2
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what is a polymer
a long chain mollecule made from joining man mollecules together
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what is a thermosoftening polymer
a polymer with no bonds between polymer chains that softens and melts when heated
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what are giant covalent substances
substances which have been joins by covalent bonds in a continuous network eg. diamond, graphite, silicon, silicondioxide
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what is the structure in a giant covalent substance
all atoms are in a giant lattice. they are all joined together by covalent bonds in a continuous network throughout the structre.
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use the structure of giant covalent substances to explain its boiling and melting point
in order to melt a giant covalent substance, many covalent bonds have to be broken so it takes allot of energy to break them. therefore they have extremely high melting points.
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use the structure of giant covalent substances to explain its electrical conductivity
most giant covalent substancs do not conduct electricity as they do not contain any delocalised electrons, however, graphite does contain delocalised electrons so it does conduct. the delocalised electrons are able to move throughout the substance
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what are metallic substances
metals are metallic substances. over 3/4 of all elements have a metallic structure
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what is the structure of metallic substances
metals consist of a giant lattice of atoms arranged in a regular pattern, the outer shell electrons of each atom are delocalised which means they are free to move throughout the whole structure
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how are metallic substances held together
due to the strong attraction between the positive nuckeus and the delocalised electrons (metallic bonding)
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use the structure of metallic substances to explain its melting/boiling point
in metals the metallic bonding is strong (strong atraction between positice nucleus and negativ delocalised electrons so most metals have high melting and boiling points.
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use the structure of metallic substances to explain its electrical conductivity
metals are good conductors of electricity as the delocalised electrons are able to move through the structure and carry electrical charge through the metal
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use the structure of metallic substances to explain its thermal conductivity
metals are good conductors of heat as the thermal energy is transferred by the delocalised electrons
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why are metals malleable
because the layers of atoms can slide over eachother while maintaining the metallic bonding
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why does an alloy increase the hardness of a metal
as the two types of metals' atoms are different ssizes meaning thy cant slide over eachother as easily
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what are monatomic structures
group 0 has this and it is where the atoms are sepereately held together by weak forces and there is no bonds between the atoms as there are no delocalised electrons
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what is nanoscience
the study of nano particles (structures which are between 1m and 100nm in size)
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why do nanoparticles behave differently than in bulk material
in bulk material there is one large structure where only a tiny fraction of the atoms are on the surface whereas in a nano particle a much higher fraction of atoms are at the surface
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list the uses of nano particles
in fuel cells, delivery of drugs, in sun creams, synthetic skin, consmetics, clothing, deodrants, electronics
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how are nano particles useful in fuel cells
fuel cells use electrochemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen to release chemical energy. most fuels cells use platinum as a catalyst but it is very expencive so they use nano particles (cheaper material research) as it uses less platinum.
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how are nanoparticles useful in delivery of drugs
nanoparticles can be used to deliver drugs to speific parts of the body. this will reduce the amount of drug needed and reduce any side effects of the drugs
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how are nanoparticles useful in suncreams
nanoparticles TiO2 and ZnO are used to absorb harmful uv radiation. they give better protection and are also clear
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how are nanoparticles useful in clothing
some clothing like socks contains silver nanoparticles which kill bacteria preventing unpleasant odor build up
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how can some nanoparticles be unsafe
as the properties of nanoparticles are different in bulk we dont know if it could be harmful, eg. although gold is safe nanoparticles of gold might not. people think nanparticles may be able to penetrate the cell membrane and enter the cell
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how are carbon atoms joined together in a diamond
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how are carbon atoms joined together in graphite
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why is graphite a conductor of electricity
as it has one delocalised electron as it is only joind to 3 other electrons
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what are uses, hardnesses and meltingpoints of graphite and diamond
uses: drill and saw tips (d) pencils as it rubs off easily on paper (g) hardness: extremely hard due to many strong bonds (d) soft as layers of atoms arent bonded together so easily slide (G) melting point (both): very high, many strong bonds broken
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what is the shape of buckminsterfullerene
it looks like a football
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what are all the fullerenes
a family of carbon mollecules each with carbon atoms linked in rings ro form a hollow sphere or tube
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what is a function of fullerenes
catalysts, lubricants, drug dellivery to specific body parts
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what are carbon nanotubes
long tubes of carvon. can be thought of as tubes of graphene sheet
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what are properties of carbon nanotubes
high strength when pulled (high tensile strength) high thermal and electrical conductance due to delocalised electrons and nothing in the centre of the carbon nanotubes
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Card 2

Front

what is a giant lattice

Back

a regular structure containing a massive number of particles that continues in all directions throughout the structure

Card 3

Front

how are ionic compounds formed

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

how are ionic substances held together

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is a dot and cross diagram and what are its advantages/disadvantages

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