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  • C2: Bonding, Structure and Properties of Matter
    • States of Matter
      • Three states of matter: Solids, Liquids, Gases
      • Changing States
      • State Symbols
        • Solid (s)
        • Liquid (l)
        • Gas (g)
        • Aqueous (aq)
    • Ionic Compounds
      • Chemical Bonds
        • Ionic Bonds
        • Covalent Bonding
        • Metallic Bonding
      • Ions are formed when atoms gain or lose electrons (giving them an overall charge)
      • Ionic bond is a strong electrostatic force of attraction between the positive metal ion and the negative non-metal ion
      • Metals that loose= positively charged
        • Metal that gains = negatively charged
      • Properties
        • Giant Structures
        • Held together by strong forces of attraction
        • High m.p and b.p
        • Do not conduct electricity
        • Do conduct when molten or in solution
    • Covalent Compounds
      • Covalent Bonding
        • Shared pair of electrons
        • Occur in non- metals
        • Very strong
      • Small molecules
        • No overall electrical charge
        • Low melting and boiling points
        • Weak intermolecular
        • Larger molecules have stronger intermecular forces
      • Giant Covalent Structure
        • Diamond (form of carbon)
          • Lattice structure
          • Each carbon atom forms 4 strong covalent bonds with other carbons
          • No charged particles
        • Graphite
          • Each carbon atom forms 3 covalent bonds
          • Layered, hexagonal structure (weak inter molecular forces)
          • Conduct heat and electricity
    • Metals and Special Materials
      • Graphene (form of carbon) (single layer of graphite)
      • Fullerenes
        • Hollow shape (tubes, balls and cages)
      • Polymers
        • Very large molecules, strong covalent bonds
        • Solid at room temperature
      • Metallic Bonding
        • Metals, alloys
        • Giant structure, electrons in outer shell are delocalised
        • Electrostatic atttraction


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