Blood glucose regulation

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What is the region of the pancreas that contains the cells that manufacture the hormones and what are the cells that produce the hormones called?
Islet of Langerhans which contains the alpha cells and beta cells.
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What do the alpha and beta cells manufacture?
Alpha cells manufacture glucagon and beta cells produce insulin.
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What happens if the concentration of blood glucose rises or falls from the normal concentration?
The alpha and beta cells will detect the change and respond by releasing a hormone to cause levels to return to normal.
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What effect does glucagon have on blood glucose concentration?
Glucagon causes blood glucose concentration to increase.
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What effect does insulin have on blood glucose concentration?
Releasing insulin causes blood glucose concentration to decrease.
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What happens first when blood glucose concentration is too low?
Detected by the alpha cells in the Islet of Langerhans which secrete glucagon.
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What does the release of glucagon cause?
Hepatocytes have specific receptors for glucagon which glucagon will bind to.
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What effect does this binding have?
Causes the conversion of glycogen to glucose (glycogenolysis) and the use of more fatty acids in respiration.
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What is produced after this conversion?
Production of glucose by conversion of amino acids and fats (gluconeogenesis).
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What happens first when blood glucose concentration is too high?
The beta cells in the Islets of Langerhan secrete insulin.
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What will happen to the insulin?
Hepatocytes have specific receptors for insulin which insulin will bind to.
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What does this binding cause?
It will activate adenyl cyclase which will convert ATP to cAMP. cAMP activates enzyme-controlled reactions.
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What effect does this have?
More glucose channels are placed on the membrane, more glucose in the cell which is converted to glycogen (glycogenesis). More glucose is converted to fats and more is used in respiration.
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Card 2

Front

What do the alpha and beta cells manufacture?

Back

Alpha cells manufacture glucagon and beta cells produce insulin.

Card 3

Front

What happens if the concentration of blood glucose rises or falls from the normal concentration?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What effect does glucagon have on blood glucose concentration?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What effect does insulin have on blood glucose concentration?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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