Biotechnology

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What is biotechnology?
Industrial use of living organisms to produce food, drugs or other products
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Why are microorganisms used in biotechnological processes?
Grow rapidly,chemicals harvested, genetically engineered for specific products, Grown anywhere, produce pure products, waste materials can be used to grow on
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What are the 4 stages in the growth curve?
Lag, Log, Stationary and Decline
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What is a primary metabolite?
Substances produced by organisms during normal growth eg amino acids, proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids ethanol and lactate. Production of metabolite matches growth in population of the organism. Need to grow
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What is a secondary metabolite?
Substances produced by organism not part of normal growth eg antibioic chemicals. Produced after main growth period of organism so doesn't match population growth. Few produce secondary increase during log, peak during stationary
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What is the process of batch culture?
Growth rate slower as nutrient level declines with time, easy to set up, only affects one batch of contamination, less efficient, useful for secondary metabolite production
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What is the process of continuous culture?
Growth rate higher as nutrients continuously added, set up and maintainance more difficult, contamination is huge loss, More efficient, useful for primarymetabolites
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What conditions have to be monitored in a fermenter?
O2 supply for aerobic and no unwanted anaerobic products, pH for enzymes, temperature for enzymes, type of growth nutrient added
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What is the importance of asepsis in the manipulation of organisms?
Absence of unwanted microorganisms. Avoid contamination. Competetition reduced, yield increased, spoilage avoided, toxic chemicals not produced and products not destroyed
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How can enzymes be immobilised?
CAME: Covalent bonding for support strong. Adsorption on glass beads, resins. Membrane separation by partially permeable membranes and Entrapment in beads or cellulose fibres
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Why are immobilised enzymes used in large scale production?
Lower purification costs, can be reused, more stable as enzymes protected by matrix HOWEVER, may be expensive, less active and whole system would need to be stopped if contaminated
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Card 2

Front

Why are microorganisms used in biotechnological processes?

Back

Grow rapidly,chemicals harvested, genetically engineered for specific products, Grown anywhere, produce pure products, waste materials can be used to grow on

Card 3

Front

What are the 4 stages in the growth curve?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a primary metabolite?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a secondary metabolite?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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