Biology Unit 2a Revision

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What are the similarities and differences of Plant and Animal cells?
Animal and Plant cells both have: Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Cell membrane, Mitochondria + Ribosomes. Plant cells additionally have: Cell wall, Permanent vacuole and Chloroplasts
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What is the function of the nucleus?
Contains genetic material that controls the activities of the cell
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What is the function of the cytoplasm?
Gel-like substance where most of the chemical reactions happen. It contains enzymes that control these chemical reactions
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What is the function of a cell membrane?
Holds the cell together and controls what goes in and out
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What is the function of a mitochondria?
These are where most of the reactions for respiration take place. Respiration releases energy that the cell needs to work
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What is the function of ribosomes?
These are where proteins are made in the cell
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What is the function of the ridgid cell wall in a plant cell?
Made of cellulose, it supports the cell and strengthens it
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What is the function of the permanent vacuole in a plant cell?
Contains cell sap, a week solution of sugar and salts
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What is the function of chloroplasts in a plant cell?
These are where photosythesis occurs, which makes food for the plant, they contain a green substance called chlorophyll
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What is yeast?
Yeast is a microorganism. A yeast cell has a nucleus, cytoplasm, and a cell membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
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What is a bacterial cell?
Single celled microorganisms. A bacterial cell has cytoplasm and a cell membrane surrounded by a cell wall. The genetic material floats in the cytoplasm because bacterial cells don't have a nucleus.
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Define Diffusion
It's the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
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An example of diffusion
Gases diffuse through each other/ small molecules (oxygen, glucose, amino acids and water)
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How are Palisade Lead Cells adapted for photosynethesis?
- Packed with chloroplasts and most crammed at the top of the cell - Tall shape (surface area exposed) for absorbing C02 - Thin
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How are guard cells adapted to open and close pores?
- Special kidney shape which opens/closes the stomata - Plant has lots of water the guard cells fill with it and go plump and turgid (open) - When plant is short of water the guard cells lose water and become more flaccid (close) - sensitive to light
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How are red blood cells adapted to carry oxygen?
- Concave shape gives a big surface area for absobing oxygen - packed with haemoglobin - they have no nucleus to leave more room for haemoglobin
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What are large multicellular organisms made up of?
Organ systmes
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A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function. Give 3 examples of tissues:
Muscular tissue, which can contract to bring about movement. Glandular tissue which can produce substances such as enzymes and hormones. Epithelia tissue which covers some parts of the body
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Organs are made up of tissues. What does the stomach consist of?
Muscular tissue, to churn the contents, Glandular tissue to produce digestive juices and the epithelial tissue to cover the outside and the inside of the stomach
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What does the digestive system contain?
Glands (pancreas and salivary glands), The stomach and the small intestine, The liver (bile), The small intestine (absorption of soluble food occurs), The large intestine (water absorbed)
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Give some examples of plant tissues
Epidermal tissues (cover the plant), Mesophyll (carry out photosynthesis) Xylem and Phloem (transports substances around the plant)
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Photosynthesis equation..
Carbon Dioxide + Water -> Glucose + Oxygen
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What happens during photosynthesis?
Light energy is absorbed by a green substance called chlorophyll, which is found in chloroplasts. This light energy is used by converting CO2 and water into sugar (glucose) and oxygen is released as a by-product
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What might limit the rate of photosynthesis?
Shortage of light, Low temperature, Shortage of CO2
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What might the glucose produced by the plant be used for?
Converted into insoluble starch for storage. Plant cells may also use this for respiration. To produce fat or oil for storage. To produce cellulose (strengthens cells) To produce proteins
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What else do plants need to produce proteins?
Nitrate ions
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What are the factors that may affect organisms?
Temperature, Avalibillity of nutrients, Amount of light, Availability of water, Availability of oxygen and carbon dioxide
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How can quantitative data on the distribution of organisms be obtained?
Random sampling using quadrats or Sampling along a transect
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Card 2

Front

What is the function of the nucleus?

Back

Contains genetic material that controls the activities of the cell

Card 3

Front

What is the function of the cytoplasm?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the function of a cell membrane?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the function of a mitochondria?

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