Biology Topics 4,5 and 6


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T4- What is an experiment to show diffusion in a non-living system?
Agar jelly with NaOH and phenolphthalein in hydrochloric acid. The hydrochloric acid will diffuse into the pink jelly and neutralise it to turn it colourless.
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T4- What is an experiment to show osmosis in a living system?
Potato cylinders of equal size and shape in solutions of different concentrations.Leave for hours and the potatoes will increase/decrease in size due to the net movement of water. If in a hypotonic solution, water will go in.
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T4- What is an experiment to show osmosis in a non-living system?
A visking tube with a sugar solution within. Pure water in the beaker will diffuse into the visking tube.
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T4- Define Active transport.
It is the opposite of diffusion. The net movement of particles from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration, using energy released from respiration. E.g ileum if there are nutrients in the blood but few in the ileum itself.
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T4- what are the three main factors affecting the movement of substances in and out of cells?
Temperature- particles have more kinetic energy so diffuse in and out faster. steep concentration gradient- means lots more sugars on one side than the other, (faster.) Surface area to volume ratio.
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T5- What elements make up a carbohydrate?
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
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T5- What are examples of polysaccharides, monosaccharides and disacchardies?
Starch, glycogen. Glucose, fructose. Maltose.
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T5- How can a polysaccharide be broken down into a simple sugar?
amylase breaks starch down into maltose, and maltase breaks maltose down into glucose.
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T5- What elements are proteins made of/broken down by?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen. THEY ARE LONG CHAINS OF AMINO ACIDS. Broken down by protease.
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T5- What elements are lipids made of/broken down by?
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. One glycerol to three fatty acids. Broken down by lipases.
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T5- How would you test for glucose?
Use benedict's solution and heat. Will form a coloured precipitate. Blue> Green> yellow> Orange > red.
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T5- How would you test for starch?
Use iodine solution and add, if starch is present it would be blue/black.
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T5- What are the six essential nutrients?
Minerals, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Vitamins, Lipids, Water.
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T5- What do your energy requirements depend on?
Your age, pregnancy and activity level.
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T5- Where can you find calcium and iron, and what do they provide?
Calcium- milk, cheese and helps bones and teeth stay fortified. Iron can be found in red meat and is essential for the production of haemoglobin.
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T5- Where can you find carbohydrates, and what do they provide?
Pasta, rice, provide energy.
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T5- Where can you find proteins, and what do they provide?
Fish, meat. They build muscle and are needed for growth and repair. They can be used as an emergency source of energy.
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T5- Where can you find Vitamins A, C and D and what do they provide?
Vitamin A can be found in liver- improves vision and maintains healthy hair/skin. vitamin C found in citrus fruits- prevents scurvy. Vitamin D found in Eggs (also sunlight,) - needed to aid the absorption of calcium.
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T5- Where can you find lipids, and what do they provide?
In oils/butter. They are and energy store and insulation.
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T5- Where can you find Water and fibre, and what do they provide?
Water is found in most food and drink, it is essential to replenish any water lost since it is needed for most bodily functions. Fibre- aids the movement of faeces through the gut.
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T5- Where is BILE produced, and what is its function?
it is produced in the liver, stored in the gall bladder before released into the duodenum. Bile neutralises the acidic pH from the stomach- enzymes can work better in these conditions. It emulsifies fats, so they have a larger surface to vol ratio.
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T6- What aids digestion in the mouth?
Mechanical digestion from the teeth, the salivary glands produce amylase which breaks down the starch into maltose.
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T6- What aids digestion in the oesophagus and stomach?
the food moves into the stomach by peristalsis. Mechanical digestion in the stomach from the walls. The stomach produces pepsin a protease , and HCl which kills bacteria/provides the optimum pH for pepsin.
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T6- What aids digestion in the Liver?
Bile is produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder (see card about bile.)
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T6- What aids digestion in the pancreas?
When the food is being held back in the duodenum by a sphincter, the enzymes from the pancreas (trypsin and amylase,) are released onto the semi-digested food.
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T6- What aids digestion in the ileum?
The ileum produces peptidases and maltase, and the digested nutrients are absorbed into the blood stream
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T6- What aids digestion in the colon?
In the colon, excess water from food is absorbed.
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T6- What is peristalsis?
It is waves of circular muscle contractions, where tissues squeeze the boluses.
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T6- Explain Ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion
ingestion- food in mouth. Digestion- mechanical/chemical. breaking large insoluble molecules into small soluble ones. Absorption- Moving soluble molecules into the blood. Assimilation- absorbed molecules become part of cell. Egestion- faeces expelled
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T6- Describe the structure of a villus, and its adaptations of the ileum for efficient absorption
It is a lacteal which absorbs binded fats sorrounded by a network of capillaries, surrounded by a single layer of surface cells. The villi increase surface area of the ileum, and the ileum is long in length so most nutrients are absorbed.
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T6- Explain the adaptations of a villus.
1) Single permeable layer of surface so there is fast absorption. 2) Due to the capillaries so close to the walls of the intestines, there is a steep concentration gradient of nutrients between the ileum and blood, so fast absorption. Microvilli
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

T4- What is an experiment to show osmosis in a living system?

Back

Potato cylinders of equal size and shape in solutions of different concentrations.Leave for hours and the potatoes will increase/decrease in size due to the net movement of water. If in a hypotonic solution, water will go in.

Card 3

Front

T4- What is an experiment to show osmosis in a non-living system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

T4- Define Active transport.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

T4- what are the three main factors affecting the movement of substances in and out of cells?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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