Biology Keywords

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  • Created by: nick
  • Created on: 19-01-14 18:16
Transect
a line that is placed along a region at regular intervals quadrats are taken.
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Quadrat
a square,hence quad, frame that is used to take a sample of an area by counting the number of species or different types of species.
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Niche
the role of an organism in its environment eg. interaction with food, habitat, feeding times.
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Pioneer species
the first species to colonise an area of harsh conditions e.g. low amounts of nutrients
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Climax community
the final community of succession where the biodiversity has remained constant.
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Primary Succession
Where a pioneer species colonises bare rock and changes conditions over time so that it suites another species better. The same process occurs over seras until a climax community is reached.
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Secondary Succession
Where an area of land has been destroyed and its left to bare soil which allows pioneer species to colonise on until climax community.
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Deflected succession
when something prevents the sera continuing to another sera thus the climax community is never reached
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1st sera
Pioneer species populate in he harsh conditions
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2nd sera
still specialists but exploit modified conditions created by the 1st sera community.
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3rd sera
More species present but conditions made more moderate.
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4th sera
diversity increasing
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GPP- Gross primary productivity
the amount of energy fixed in photosynthesis
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NPP- Net profit productivity
energy turned into biomass made available for the next trophic level
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what is the equation relating GPP NPP and respiration?
NPP=GPP-R
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Abiotic factors
non-living environmental interactions such as light, soil pH, temperature, water, competition, CO2
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Biotic factors
living environmental interactions such as chlorophyll, enzymes, raw material, ADP.
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Speciation
the forming of a new species due to reproductive isolation.
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Stroma
Where light independent reactions take place, glucose is produced here
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Thylakoid Membrane
The site where light dependent reactions occur. water, Light and NADP are used producing NADPH and oxygen.
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Thylakoid space
Where water is split by photolysis.
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NADP/NADPH
the electron carrier/ carries the H and electrons and is the reducing power for the L-IR
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ADP + Pi =
ATP and energy
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Photophosphorylation
The process of converting ADP + Pi into ATP
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Proteomics
the study of proteins
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Genomics
the study of DNA
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Reproductive Isolation
when a group of a population are separated from the existing population being unable to reproduce due to a barrier.
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Prezygotic Reproductive Barriers
A category in which fertilisation is prevented. including : Habitat,Temporal, Mechanical,Behavioural and Gametic Isolation
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Postzygotic Reproductive Barriers
A category when a zygote fails/unable to breed. Including Hybrid sterility and Hybrid inviability.
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Dendrochronology
the study of the size of tree rings. Warmer and wetter = wider rings. Cooler and drier narrower rings.
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4 ways that can provide evidence of global warming?
Ice cores, Pollen data, Temperature records, tree rings
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Habitat Isolation
populations occupy different habitats inthe same area so they do not meet one another to breed.
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Temporal Isolation
species exist in the same area but are active for reproduction at different times.
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Mechanical Isolation
the reproductive organs no longer fit together
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Behavioural Isolation
Populations do not respond to each others reproductive display.
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Gametic Isolation
maleand female gametes from two different populations are incompatible with each other
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Hybrid sterility
Healthy individuals produced from the mating of two different species cannot themselves reproduce.
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Hybrid inviability
Individuals from the mating of two different species are not healthy and do not survive
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PCR
polymerase chain reaction- used to amplify DNA
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STRs
Short Tandem Repeats- sequences of repeated bases
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Introns
Non coding sections of dna
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Exons
coding sections of dna
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Degenerate
An amino acid having more than one codon which codes for it. The beginning of thecode can be the same for the variants of codon.Offering protection against mutation.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

a square,hence quad, frame that is used to take a sample of an area by counting the number of species or different types of species.

Back

Quadrat

Card 3

Front

the role of an organism in its environment eg. interaction with food, habitat, feeding times.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

the first species to colonise an area of harsh conditions e.g. low amounts of nutrients

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

the final community of succession where the biodiversity has remained constant.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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