Diet, disease and preventing disease (B1)

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What are the nutrients needed for a balanced diet?
Carbohydrates, proteins and fats (for energy) and vitamins and mineral ions for keeping healthy.
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What happens if you diet is not balanced?
You can become malnourished (become too fat or thin, or suffer from diseases)
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What is the metabolic rate and how is it inherited?
The metabolic rate is the rate in which chemical reactions take place in the body, it is affected by your genes which you inherit from your parents.
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Why are proteins not classed as a major source of energy?
Proteins are used for growth and repair.
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How is cholesterol transported? If you have high cholesterol, what can this cause?
A high level of cholesterol in the blood can increase the chance plaque blocking the arteries, so it's harder for oxygenated blood to pass through the body. This called a heart attack.
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What can increase and decrease the levels of cholesterol in your body?
Saturated fats (found in animal products) raises blood cholesterol levels. Unsaturated fats (found in plants) seem to lower blood cholesterol levels.
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What are the two ways in which cholesterol is transported around the body?
Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which causes heart attacks. High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which can protect you from heart disease by helping to remove cholesterol from the walls of blood vessels?
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Some microorganisms can cause disease. What are these microorganisms called? What different kinds are there?
Pathogens come in the form of bacteria, viruses and fungi.
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What do bacteria do to cause disease?
Bacteria can reproduce inside the body. They produce toxins that make us feel ill.
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What do viruses do to cause disease?
Viruses reproduce inside a body cell then destroy it when they burst out. The viruses then invade other cells.
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What's the difference between an epidemic and a pandemic?
Epidemics occur when a wide spread of people have a disease, whereas pandemics occur when a disease affects a whole country or goes worldwide.
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In the 1840's, a doctor called Semmelweis used evidence from the death rates to work out why they were dying. These doctors were transferring something to them from dead bodies. What was this transfer and how did they find out how to prevent it?
Semmelweis made all the doctors wash their hands in chlorine water and, within a very short time, the death rate plummeted. We now know the infection that killed the women was caused by bacteria.
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There are some white blood cells called phagocytes, these cells help prevent disease. Use this information to explain the process of phagocytosis?
A phagocyte can surround and ingest bacteria. A phagocyte moves towards the bacterium. The phagocyte pushes a sleeve of cytoplasm outwards to surround the bacterium. The bacterium is now enclosed in a vacuole inside the cell and killed by enzymes.
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How are lymphocytes different to phagocytes?
Lymphocytes have a different process to phagocytes. They produce antibodies that stick to the antigens of the pathogen. This may kill it directly, or stick it to other pathogens in clumps so the phagocytes can destroy them more easily.
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Why are antibodies and antitoxins very specific?
Each kind of antibody or antitoxin only works against a particular pathogen or toxin. Each shape of an antibody fits onto one kind of pathogen.
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What are 'antibiotics'?
Antibiotics are drugs that kill bacteria, without killing your own cells. Penicillin is an example.
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Antibiotics do not work work equally well against all types of bacterium. How can bacteria in a petri dish show this?
Bacteria are spread onto the jelly. Paper discs soaked in different antibiotics are placed on the jelly and the antibiotics diffuse out. If the antibiotic kills the bacteria, they do not grow around the disc.
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What's important to remember about antibiotics?
Antibiotics only kill bacteria, they do not kill viruses. Some viral infections can be treated by taking antiviral drugs.
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Why must antibiotics not be overused?
Overuse makes it more likely that bacteria will become resistant to antibiotics.
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How does antibiotic resistance arise?
One bacterium has mutated and is slightly different from the others. The person takes the antibiotics to kill the bacteria. It works, except on the single odd bacterium. This one is resistant to the antibiotic and so it cannot be killed.
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What happens when a bacterium becomes resistant?
The current bacterium cannot be killed by the antibiotic, so their needs to be a new antibiotic produced.
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How can we prevent new strains of bacteria from forming?
We need to reduce the use of antibiotics.
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Whenever antibiotics are used, it gives an advantage to any mutant bacterium that happens to be resistant to them. What happens if antibiotics are not used?
The mutant bacterium does not have any advantage: it is no more likely to reproduce than any other bacterium.
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MRSA is resistant to most antibiotics. The number of deaths from this disease rose between 1993 and 2006, but it is now gradually decreasing. Suggest one reason for this.
Because people are becoming more aware of how to stop it from spreading.
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What does the MMR vaccination make children immune to?
Measles, mumps and rubella
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Describe how the MMR vaccination prevents these diseases.
A small amount of dead or inactive viruses are injected into the blood. The white blood cells attack them, just as they would attack living pathogens. They remember how to make the antibody, so the child is now immune to the disease.
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Some diseases cannot be vaccinated against. Explain why and give an example of one of these diseases.
There are too many strains of the pathogen, for example, the common cold.
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What is a 'mutation'?
The changing of the structure of a gene.
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Why couldn't existing vaccines cure Swine Flu?
A mutation occurred so that this kind of flu was created, so an existing vaccine couldn't cure the disease and a new one had to be developed.
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How can scientists create bacteria?
Bacteria can be grown in a hospital pathology lab. The petri dishes, on which the bacteria are growing, will be put into an incubator to keep warm and to encourage rapid growth.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

You can become malnourished (become too fat or thin, or suffer from diseases)

Back

What happens if you diet is not balanced?

Card 3

Front

The metabolic rate is the rate in which chemical reactions take place in the body, it is affected by your genes which you inherit from your parents.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Proteins are used for growth and repair.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A high level of cholesterol in the blood can increase the chance plaque blocking the arteries, so it's harder for oxygenated blood to pass through the body. This called a heart attack.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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