Biology B1.1 Flashcards

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What is malnourishment?
Malnourishment is when a person's diet is not balanced.
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What can malnourishment lead to? (2)
Malnourishment can lead to the person being over or underweight. It can also cause deficiency diseases, such as Type 2 diabetes.
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How does someone lose mass?
When a person consumes less energy than is used, they lose mass.
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What does metabolic rate mean?
Metabolic rate is the rate at which all the chemical reactions in the cells of the body are carried out.
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How does metabolic rate vary? (2)
The metabolic rate varies with the amount of activity you do and the proportion of muscle to fat in your body.
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Name two ways inherited factors affect our health.
Metabolic rate and cholesterol level are inherited factors affect our health.
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What are the microorganisms that cause infectious disease?
Microorganisms that cause infectious disease are called pathogens.
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What are toxins?
Toxins are the poisons that pathogens make that make us feel ill.
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How do white blood cells help to defend against pathogens? (3)
White blood cells help to defend against pathogens by: - ingesting pathogens -producing antibodies, which destroy particular bacteria or viruses -producing antitoxins, which counteract the toxins released by the pathogens.
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How does the body become immune to a pathogen? (think vaccinations)
The white blood cells produce specific antibodies to kill a particular pathogen. They then remember how to make them and are able to produce them rapidly.
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What did Semmelweis recognise the importance of?
Semmelweis recognised the importance of hand-washing in the prevention of spreading some infectious diseases
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What do most medicines, like pain killers, do?
Most medicines help to relieve the symptoms of infectious disease, but do not kill the pathogens
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What are antibiotics?
Antibiotics are medicines that help to cure bacterial disease by killing infectious bacteria inside the body.
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What's the problem with overusing antibiotics?
The overuse of antibiotics can lead to resistant strains of bacteria
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What process allows resistant strains to develop?
Natural Selection
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How do vaccines work? (3)
Small quantities of dead or inactive forms of the pathogen are injected The pathogen has antigens on it, stimulating the white blood cells to produce antibodies to destroy that particular pathogen This makes the person immune to future infections. If
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How can people be immunised against a disease?
Vaccinations
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How do scientists make sure micro-organism cultures remain uncontaminated?
How do scientists make sure micro-organism cultures remain uncontaminated? Petri dishes and agar jelly are sterilised Inoculating loops are sterilised by passing them through a flame The lid of the petri dish should be secured with tape
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What can malnourishment lead to? (2)

Back

Malnourishment can lead to the person being over or underweight. It can also cause deficiency diseases, such as Type 2 diabetes.

Card 3

Front

How does someone lose mass?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does metabolic rate mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How does metabolic rate vary? (2)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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