Biology Flashcards

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What increases the metabolic rate?
Exercise- the chemical reactions happen faster
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What can affect your metabolic rate and the proportion on muscle/fat in your body?
Inherited factors
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How do people become obese?
They have taken in too much energy than they have used
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What can obesity lead to?
Type 2 diabetes (high blood sugar levels), heart disease
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What happens to your body if you take in too much energy or too few vitamins?
Your body becomes malnourished
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What three things does your body need to release energy?
Carbohydrates, fat and protein
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Why do starving people find it difficult to walk about?
They lack in vitamins and minerals- may have a deficiency disease
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Bad cholesterol can lead to ............?
Heart disease
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What did Semmelweiss discover?
That infection can be transferred from person to person
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Why didn't many people believe Semmelweiss?
Because no-one knew about bacteria or viruses
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How do pathogens make you feel ill?
Pathogens produce toxins (poisons) which damage cells
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What form are the pathogens usually?
Bacteria or viruses
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How do viruses spread?
They reproduce inside cells
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What increases your blood cholesterol levels?
Foods rich in saturated fat
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What prevents pathogens from entering the body?
The skin- they are also trapped by mucus and killed by stomach acid.
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What do white blood cells do?
They ingest pathogens (digest + destroy), Produce antibodies (to help destroy particular pathogens) and Produce antitoxins (to counteract toxins from pathogens)
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Why are antibiotics only able to kill bacteria?
Because viruses are inside body cells
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What did Alexander Fleming discover in 1928?
Penecillin
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What do painkillers do?
Relieve the symptoms of a disease but do not kill the pathogen
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When using petri dishes, what must you do with the equipment?
Sterilise equipment to ensure that no unwanted micro-organisms infect the culture
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How does the temperature of an incubator affect the rate at which bacteria grows?
The higher the temperature of an incubator, the faster the bacteria grows.
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What can uncontaminated cultures be used for?
To investigate the effect of antibiotics and disinfectants on the bacteria.
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What is MMR used to treat?
Measles, mumps and rubella.
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Some pathogens can ............?
Mutate (change). Very few people are immune to these changed pathogens so disease can spread very quickly.
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What is it called when disease spreads WITHIN a country?
Epidemic
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What is it called when disease spreads ACROSS a country?
Pandemic
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What is used to make a vaccine?
Dead or inactive forms of a pathogen.
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How does Natural Selection cause resistant populations of bacteria to develop?
Antibiotics kills the non-resistant strains which allows the resistant ones to survive and multiply
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How do the white blood cells react to a vaccine?
The white blood cells produce antibodies which makes the person immune (prevents further infection)
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Name an advantage of vaccination.
Protects individuals and society from the effects of disease.
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Name a disadvantage of vaccination.
Some vaccines can cause side effects
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What can happen if you overuse antibiotics?
Can lead to the development of new strains of bacteria.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What can affect your metabolic rate and the proportion on muscle/fat in your body?

Back

Inherited factors

Card 3

Front

How do people become obese?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What can obesity lead to?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens to your body if you take in too much energy or too few vitamins?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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