BIOLOGY

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Transpiration
is the loss of water by evaporation from the aerial parts of a plant
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What factors alter the rate of Transpiration?
p77 ---- Number of leaves, number of stomata, presence of cuticle, light, temperature, relative humidity, air or wind movement, water availability.
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How does water move up the stem?
Root Pressure, Transpiration pull, capillary action
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Cohesion
is the attraction of water molecules for one another
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Adhesion
is the attraction of water molecules to the walls of the xylem
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Symplast Pathway
water moves through the cell cytoplasm
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Apoplast pathway
moves the water in the cell walls and between the cells
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Plasmodesmata
a fine strand of cytoplasm that links the contents of adjacent cells
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Phloem
Transports sugars and other assimilates up and down the plant !!! is a plant transport tissue that carries the products of photosynthesis (eg. sugars) to the rest of the plant. It consist of sieve tube elements and companion cells.
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Xylem
TRANSPORTS WATER UP THE PLANT is a plant transport tissue that carries water from the roots to the rest of the plant. It consists of hollow column of dead cells lined end-to-end and reinforced with lignin. It provides important support for the plant.
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The Bohr Effect?
refers to a change in the shape of the oxyhaemoglobin curve when carbon dioxide is present- this causes the ocyhaemoglobin to release oxygen more readily
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Source and Sink
releases sucrose into the phloem (source) and A sink removes sucrose from the phloem.
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what are Carbohydrates used for?
Energy storage and supply, structure (in some organisms)
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what is the role of a Protein?
Structure, transport, enzymes, antibodies, most hormones.
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What are lipids role?
Membranes, energy supply, thermal insulation, protective layers/padding, electrical insulation in neurones, some hormones
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Whats the role of Vitamins and Minerals?
Form parts of some larger molecules and take part in some metabolic reactions, some act as coenzymes or enzyme activators
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Role of Nucleic Acids?
Information molecules , carry instructions for life
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Role of Water?
Takes part in many reactions, support in plants, solvent/medium for most metabolic reactions, transport
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Metabolism
is the sum total of all the biochemical reactions taking place in the cells of an organism.
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What happens in a Condensation reaction
a water molecule is released, a new covaelnt bond is formed, a larger molecule is formed by the bonding together of smaller molecules
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What happens in a hydrolysis reaction
a water molecule is used, a covalent bond is broken, smaller molecules are formed by the splitting of a larger molecule
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Cellulose
a carbohydrate polymer made by bonding many beta-glucose molecules together in long chains.
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Haemoglobin
a globular transport protein.
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Collagen
is a fibrous structural protein
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Triglyceride
Glycerol and 3 fatty acids.
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Phospholipid
Glycerol plus two fatty acids and a phosphate group
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Cholesterol
Four carbon based ring structures joined together
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Hydrogen Bond
weak interaction that can occur whenever molecules contain a slightly negatively charged atom bonded to a slightly positively charged hydrogen. Water molecules hydrogen bond with each other extensively.
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Card 2

Front

What factors alter the rate of Transpiration?

Back

p77 ---- Number of leaves, number of stomata, presence of cuticle, light, temperature, relative humidity, air or wind movement, water availability.

Card 3

Front

How does water move up the stem?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Cohesion

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Adhesion

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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