Can lead to strokes, heart attacks and CVD.
1- The endothelium is damaged due to smoking or high blood pressure.
2- Inflammatory response - white blood cells accumulate which collects cholesterol. ANTHROMA
3- Calcuim salts and fibrous tissue build up. PLAQUE
4- Wall hardens and loses elasticity. Artery narrower -> Higher BP -> Damage
1- Platletes stick to damaged wall. Thromboplastin, Calcuim and Vitamin K released.
(Thromboplastin triggers Prothrombin to change to thrombin, an enzyme that catalyses the conversion of Fibrinogen into insoluable FIBRIN)
2- Platelets sink to wall and each other forming a PLATELET PLUG.
3- Fibrin mech traps cells forming a clot.
Measured with a SPHYGOMANOMETER. The cuff inflates and stops blood flow through the artery. as the pressure is released, blood flow reumes and a pressure reading is taken = SYSTOLIC PRESSURE. when the pressure has fallen enough that no sound can be heard, you can measure - DIASTOLIC PRESSURE.
Normal = 140/ 85 milimeters of mercury (mmHg)
An alcohol with similar porperties to fats. Its tranported in the blood to and from the liver, as it`s insoluable, it needs safe transport in the form of LIPOPROTIENS. The lipoprotiens wrap around cholesterol and usually only small amounts escape.
HDL`s- Made from unsat. fat and protein. They carry cholesterol away from tissues and artery wall to the liver to be broken dwn and be removed by bile. (GOOD)
LDL`s- When triglycerides from sat. fat combine with cholesterol. They are carried from the liver to the tissues. normally there is a small leak which is absorbed to build cell membranes. When there is a larger leak, cholesterol collects on arterial walls and traps white blood cells which release free radicals and react with cholesterol causing damage.
Twice the energy of carbohydrates. They`re organic and found in every type of cell, commonly eaten as triglycerides.
TRIGLYCERIDE- -Made of three fatty acids and a GLYCEROL molecule linked by ESTER BONDS.
Saturated - Maximum number of hydrogen atoms. Solid at room temperature and found in animal fats and dairy.
Unsaturated - One double bond in each fatty acid (monounsaturated). polyunsaturatd fats have more double bonds causing a kink. Because of this, they can`t pack in closely together. oils or liquid at room temperature and found in veg oils, fruits and fish.
Starch, Cellulose and Glycogen. It`s not very soluable with starch and glycogen being water insoluable.
CLYGOGEN- Stored in the liver and muscels. Has lots of side branches which means it`s rapidly hydrolysed (broken down) so easy to access as energy.
CELLULOSE- (Dietry fibre). up to 100,000 glucose molecules form the straight chain.
Amylose- Straight chain with 1-4 bonds. Coils into a spiral shape.
Amylopectin- Side branches with 1-6 bonds creating side chains.
Formed when two monosaccharides go through a condesnation reaction and form a glycosidic bond.
Glucose + Glucose = Maltose (found in germinating seeds to break down starch.)
Glucose + Galactose = Lactose (found in dairy.)
Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose (non-reducing sugar transported around plants.)
Can be split by hydrolysis.They are rapidly absorbed in the blood and cuase a sharp rise in blood sugar.
Monosaccharides - Galactose
Mainly get as part of Disaccharide Lactose.
Have between 3-7 carbon atoms (mostly 6). with 6 carbon atoms, it`s caled a HEXOSE sugar.
Monosaccharides - Glucose
Glucose - (main sugar. A product of when starch or glycogen are digested)
Monosaccharides - Fructose
Naturally in fruit, honey and some vegatables.
Monosaccharides are a rapid source of energy, readily absorbed and need little (none with glucose) change before use in cellular respiration.
Atrial Systole- Sinoartrial node depolarisizes. Atria contract forcing blood into ventricles.Ventricular Systole- The atrioventricular node picks up impulses and sends out signals along purkinje firbres. Bundle of His carries impulses to the bottom causing contraction. Diastole- Muscels relax and blood to refills.
Veins and Arteries
Artery (Arterioles) Vein (Venules)
Treatments for CVD
Heart-by-pass- A vein from the leg is used to by-pass a blocked region. Invovles open heart surgery.
Angioplasty - A ballon mechanism is inflated in a damaged artery making it wider.
Heart Transplant - The heart is replaced by a healthy donor heart.
Change in lifestyle - Lower alcochol intake, excercise, stop smoking, lower blood pressure and change diet.
Treatments for CVD - Drugs
ACE Inhibitors - Angiotension Converting Enzyme - anti-hypertensive. Reduces synthesis of hormone Angiotension [[ that causes vasco constriction.
Side Effects - Cough, dizziness, palpatations, reduced kidney function (however can help prevent kidney failure)
Calcuim Channel Blockers - Block calcuim channels in the muscels lining the arteries. Failure of calcuim entering muscels prevents contraction.
Side Effects - Headaches, dizziness, swelling, constapation, palpatations (fatal to people with heart failure)
Diuretics - Make you pee, decreases excess fluids and salt. Decreases blood:plasma volume.
Side Effects - Cramps, nausea