biology 2

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what is gas excahnge the process of
process which oxyhen transpoted into cells by diffusion and co2 is removed
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maziumin diffusion must have
large surface are, thin for short diffusion pathway, permeable membrane, moist and concentration gradient
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name how are single celles organism adapted for gas exchanges
amoba. large surface area to volume ration of gases diffuse the whole length of the body and it is most so gases diffuse in
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what happens to the surface area of large animal tp gas exchange and why
the larger the animal the smallwr the surface area, gas needed to diffue between organs and organs and enviroment which is a slow process
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describe a small multicellular organism
dont require a lot of oxygen ad they dont move fast and metabloism is slow, oxygen diffuses over the whole body
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how are flat worms specialised for gas exchange
they are flat and thing short diffusion path and have large surcae are to volume ration and diffuson happens over the whole body
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how are earth worms specialised for gas exchange
tubular shape, secretes muscus on the skin to maintiain moist, diffusion iover the whole body
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what else does a wrom conatin to increase gas diffusion
earth worm has closed cirulatiory system, coanyain a repiritory ppigments, oxthen is acrried byy the capilleries to the cells by the vessles and co2 diffuses in the opposite direct and maintains a concentration gradient
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how are large multi cellular animals have specialised system for gas exchange
have a higher metabolic rate and need more enegry, have a small surface area to volume ration and ecagh tissue and organ releies on echiother
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what ist the ventilation mechanism
the mechanism requires the movent of repiritory medium over the reperiority surface
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hiw is the ventilation mechanism
by havibg a respiritory pugnent in the blood invcrease oxygen carrying capacity, internal transpotatio of blood between cells and medium
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why does water slow the movement of gas
water id denser than air, water has ess oxyegnm
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expalin how gills in the fish are used in gas excahmge and how water moves over gills
one way current flows over the gills by pumping mechnaism, gills have folds which provide a large surggace area and the density of the water stops the gills firm collapsing
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cartiliaginous fish
skelteon made of cartilige, have 5 gill clefts which are attches to gill sltits, water flows in through the mouth and through the gill slits and oxygen is transpotred to the dissues,
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which way is blood carried in cartiliaginous fish and what is it calleds
same direction in parallel current flow
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bony fishh
skeltton is made up of bones, gills are covered by folds calle opertumum in a counter current flow
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desvribe the gills in a bony fish
have 4 pairs od gills in the pharyinx, they are connected by the gill arch, along the side af the gill arch ar ethe gill plates caslled the lamellae
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what happens to the lamella in and out of water
out of water the llamae collaps and stick togtehr, in water they provide a large surface are for oxygen to pass through goill plates and co2 to pass out in water
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how is the moth used as a ventilation mechanism
acts as a pump to pump water over the gills it opens moth cloese operulum and pressure decreases and volume increases
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describe the counter current
water passes in the opposite directtion of blood flow to maitain concrentration gradient
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gas echange in amphibians
frigs, larva live in water do have gils the transformation form larve ato frog is called metamorphis, the frig has a moist skin so gases exchhnage, uses lungs for activity such as mating
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gas echange in reptiles
snakes, hae ribs that protect the lungs an internal organs, the ribs move and ventilate the lungs
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gas echange in birds and how it works
birds nees a lot of oxyghe to be able to fly, birsd bretah in and prevous arid goes into air sacks and fresh air fills the lungs the movement of the ribs verntailites the lungs, no residue remaining
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gas echange in insects and how it works
gas exchenge running thriugh spiracles along the side if the bidy, spriricales attch tp trachea, the spirialc close like valaves and the abdominem ventilats the trachea and oxygen come in contact directly with cells
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maziumin diffusion must have

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large surface are, thin for short diffusion pathway, permeable membrane, moist and concentration gradient

Card 3

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name how are single celles organism adapted for gas exchanges

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Card 4

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what happens to the surface area of large animal tp gas exchange and why

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Card 5

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describe a small multicellular organism

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