Biology1

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  • Created by: becky.65
  • Created on: 07-05-15 18:16
List the main structures you would expect to find in an animal cell
Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Cell Membrane, Mitochondria, Ribosomes
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What does the nucleus do?
Controls all the activities of the cell. It contains the genes on the chromosomes
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What is the cytoplasm?
A liquid gel where most of the chemical reactions needed for life take place
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What does the cell membrane do?
Controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell
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What is the mitochondria?
Structures in the cytoplasm where oxygen is used and most of the energy is released during respiration. It is the powerhouse of the cell
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What take place in the ribosomes?
Protein synthesis
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What is the extra structure all plant and algal cells have?
A cell wall made of cellulose
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What are the two other features that many plant cells have?
Chloroplasts and a permanent vacuole
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Why are chloroplasts green?
They contain the green substance chlorophyll
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What is the permanent vacuole filled with?
Sap
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In bacterial cells, where are the genes found?
Free in the cytoplasm
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What are Plasmids?
Small circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information
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What may some bacteria around the outside of the cell?
A slime capsule
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What are the flagella on bacteria and what are they used for?
They are long protein strands that help the bacteria move around
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How does yeast reproduce?
Asexual budding
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What are yeast cells specialised to do?
Survive for a long time even when there is very little oxygen available
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What is the anaerobic respiration of yeast sometimes called?
Fermentation
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Why are cells specialised?
In order to carry out particular jobs
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Why may cells be specialised to work as?
Tissues, organs or whole organisms
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What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
Small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat, few mitochondria as they need very little energy and they can expand to fill up with fat
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What are fat cells used for?
They can be broken down and used for energy when it is needed and fat cells together form adipose tissue
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What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from human eye?
Outer segment contains a visual pigment, that changes chemically in coloured light, middle segment is full of mitochondria that releases the energy which lets you see continually in colour and a specialised synapse that connects to optic nerve
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What do cone cells do?
They make it possible for you to see in colour and are found in the retina
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What are the two main adaptations of root hair cells?
Root hairs increase the surface area for water to move into the cell and they have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the cell
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What do root hair cells help plants do?
They help them to take up water and mineral ions more efficiently. They are always close to the xylem tissue which carries the water and mineral ions into the rest of the plant.
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What are the four adaptations of sperm cells?
Long tail which helps the sperm move towards the egg, middle section is full of mitochondria which makes the tail work, acrosome stores digestive enzymes to break down the outer layers of the egg and a large nucleus to pass genetic information on
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What do sperm cells do?
They contain the genetic information from the male parent and they need to either move through water or the female reproductive system to reach an egg and then they have to break into it
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What is diffusion?
The net movement of particles of a gas or solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, down a concentration gradient
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How can we speed up the rate of diffusion?
By making the difference in concentration greater and therefore the concentration gradient will get steeper so it will be faster and increasing the temperature
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What is osmosis?
The movement of water from a low to a high concentrated solution through a partially permeable membrane
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A dilute solution of sugar contains what concentration of water and what concentration of sugar?
High concentration of water (the solvent) and low concentration of sugar (
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A concentrated sugar solution contains what concentration of water and what concentration of sugar?
Low concentration of water, high concentration of sugar
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What can the change in concentration gradient cause?
Water to move in or out of the cells by osmosis
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What is an isotonic solution?
When the concentration of solutes in the solution outside the cell is the same as the concentration inside the cell
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What is a hypertonic solution?
When the concentration of solutes in the solution outside the cells is higher than the concentration inside the cell
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What is a hypotonic solution?
When the concentration of solutes in the solution outside the cells is lower than the concentration inside the cell
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If the solution becomes hypotonic what happens to an animal cell?
Water will move into the cell by osmosis and the cell will swell and may burst
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If the solution becomes hypertonic what happens to an animal cell?
Water will move out of the cell by osmosis and the cytoplasm will become too concentrated and the cell will shrivel up
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How to plants become turgid?
In a hypotonic solution, the pressure builds up until no more water can enter the cell and this makes the cells hard a rigid which keeps the leaves and stems of the plant firm
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If solution surrounding the plant cell is hypertonic to the cell contents what will happen?
Water will leave the cell by osmosis and they will become flaccid. At this point the plant wilts as there is no pressure on the cell walls
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If more water is lost by osmosis what will happen?
The cell will become plasmolysed
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What is active transport?
It allows cells to move substances from an area of low concentration to an area of low concentration against the concentration gradient
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As a result of active transport, what can cells do?
Absorb ions from very dilute solutions and enables them to move substances,such as sugars and ions from one place to another through the cell membranes
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By using active transport, what can plants do?
Absorb the mineral ions, even though it's against a concentration gradient
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In your body, how is active transport used?
To absorb sugar solutions out of your gut and kidney tubules in your blood
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Why does a small organism need a large surface area:volume ratio?
So it can accomplish all the exchange it needs by simple diffusion across its body surface
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How do large organisms achieve the rate of gas exchange necessary to maintain life?
By having specialised gas exchange surfaces that all have a large surface area to volume ratio irrespective of the organism they are from.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does the nucleus do?

Back

Controls all the activities of the cell. It contains the genes on the chromosomes

Card 3

Front

What is the cytoplasm?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does the cell membrane do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the mitochondria?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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