Biology VACCINES AND IMMUNITY

  • Created by: Emsdavies
  • Created on: 04-04-17 15:54
What is passive immunity?
Antibodies come from an outside source. No direct contact needed to make immunity.
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How is passive immunity obtained immediately?
The antibodies don't produce themselves in the individual--> they are not replaced when broken down--> so no long lasting immunity.
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What are examples of passive immunity?
Includes anit-venom given to the vitcims of snake bites.
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What is active immunity?
Individuals immune system stimulates production of antibodies. Direct conctact with the antigen or pathogn is necessary.
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What are the 2 types of active immunity?
Natural active immunity and Artificial active immunity
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What is Natural active immunity?
Individual infected with a disease under normal circumstances--> the body produces its own antibodies.
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What is Artificial active immunity?
It forms the basis of vaccination--> inducing a immune response on the individual without them suffering any symptoms.
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What is a vaccine?
To stiumlate an immune response. BY -> it contains one or more type of antigen from the pathogen.
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What are produced fom vaccines?
Memory cells- these remain in the blood and allow a greatter efficent response to the future infection.
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What is Herd Immunity?
Occurs when a large proportion of the population has been vaccinated to make it difficult for the pathogen to spread. -> where the vast majority is immune that it is very unlikely to to come in contact with an infected person.
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Why is Herd Immunity important?
It is never impossible to vaccinate everyone in a large population. The % to achieve herd immunity is different in each disease, it means that very few individuals in the population with the disease.
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Why can vaccines not be effective?
- Fails in certain individuals with defective immune systems -They may develop the disease before the immunity levels are high enough to prevent it.
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What are some examples of ethical issues with vaccines?
-the production of vaccines involves animals. - some have long lasting side effects.
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What is the role of B-lymphocytes in Humoral immunity?
When an antigen enters the blood or tissue fluid, there will be one B cell with an antibody on its surface that will fit the antigen.. The antigen gets presented on the surface to which T-cells bind with, to stimulate mitosis forming plasma clones.
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What do plasma cells do?
secrete antibodies. Each can make around 200 antibodies which leads to the destruction of the antigen. (PRIMARY IMMUNE SYSTEM)
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What do memory cells do?
When they get the same antigen again, they divide rapidly and develop into plasma cells and more memory cells.They provide long term immunity, and it ensures its destroyed before any infection causes harm.
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Card 2

Front

How is passive immunity obtained immediately?

Back

The antibodies don't produce themselves in the individual--> they are not replaced when broken down--> so no long lasting immunity.

Card 3

Front

What are examples of passive immunity?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is active immunity?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the 2 types of active immunity?

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