A2 Biology definitions

  • Created by: Emily903
  • Created on: 17-02-18 13:24
Active artificial immunity
Immunity that develops following immunisation. Antigens in the vaccine trigger a specific immune response by the body's immune system.
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Active natural immunity
Immunity that develops following an infection.
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Acrosome reaction
Enzymes in the acrosome digest the follical cells and zona pellucida.
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Actin
A protein found in many cells. Actin plays an important part in muscle contraction. In a muscle fibre, actin forms the thin filaments.
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Allopatric speciation
The formation of a new species due to reduced gene flow between two populations as a result of geographical isolation.
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Amniocentesis
Obtaining fetal cells from the amniotic fluid using a needle, which can then be tested.
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Anticodon
A sequence of three nucleotide bases on a transfer RNA molecule, which is complementary to the corresponding messenger RNA codon.
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Arteriole
A blood vessel which takes blood from the smaller arteries to the capillaries.
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Bacteriophage
A virus that attacks bacteria.
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Bacteriostatic
Bacteriostatic substances do not kill bacteria but prevent them from multiplying.
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Bactericidal
A term used to describe substances which kill bacteria.
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Cartilage
A strong, flexible supporting tissue important in skeletons. Reduces friction and acts as a shock absorber.
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Catabolic
A catabolic reaction is a chemical reaction in which large molecules are broken down to produce smaller ones. e.g. respiration.
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Cardiac output
The total volume of blood pumped out of the left ventricle of the heart in one minute.
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Congenital disease
A disease or condition that is present at birth.
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Ester bond
Triglycerides are formed from glycerol and fatty acids with a chemical bond between them called an ester bond.
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Fibrinogen
Fibrinogen is a soluble protein found in the blood plasma. When an injury occurs, fibrinogen is converted to insoluble fibrin.
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Gross primary productivity, GPP
The rate at which energy is made into organic molecules in plants as carbohydrates.
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Herd immunity
If a large proportion of the population is vaccinated against a particular disease, it is unlikely that the disease will be able to spread from one person to another.
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Histone
Chromosomes contain proteins as well as DNA. The most abundant of these proteins are the histones. Histones help to package DNA, which is wound tightly round them.
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Hydrophilic
Water-attracting
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Hydrophobic
Water-repelling.
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Joint
Joints occur where two or more bones meet.
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Multifactorial
A condition, e.g. human height, in which several genes and one or more environmental factors are involved. Many diseases are also multifactorial.
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Myogenic
Muscle which is able to contract without being stimulated to do so by a nerve.
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Myosin
A protein which is important in muscle contraction. The thick myosin filaments slide between the thinner filaments of another protein, actin, bringing about muscle contraction.
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Net primary productivity, NPP
The overall energy available to the plant to be made into organic molecules after the plant has carried out respiration.
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Niche
A description of the precise role of an organism in its environment. In simple terms, an organism’s niche is where it lives and what it does there.
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Oedema
Swelling caused by the accumulation of tissue fluid.
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Oncogene
A gene that codes for a protein that stimulates the cell cycle. Mutations in these genes can lead to the cell cycle being continually active. This may result in cancer.
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Passive artificial immunity
The type of immunity that develops when a person is given ready-made antibodies; their own immune system does not make them.
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Passive natural immunity
The type of immunity that develops when antibodies pass from a mother to baby either across the placenta before birth, or via breast milk after birth. This helps protect the baby for a short time.
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Recessive allele
An allele is described as recessive if its effect is only shown when the other allele of the pair is identical.
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Schwann cell
A cell that produces myelin, the fatty material that surrounds many axons in mammalian nerve cells.
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Species
A species is a group of similar organisms which are able to breed together to produce fertile offspring.
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Stomata
A small hole or pore in the surface of a leaf through which gas exchange takes place.
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Stroke volume
The volume of blood pumped out of the left ventricle each time the ventricle contracts.
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Thrombosis
A condition in which a blood vessel is blocked by a blood clot.
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Thalassaemia
A genetic disease caused by recessive alleles of a gene involved in the manufacture of haemoglobin.
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Topography
Characteristics of the physical environment such as altitude, slope and aspect.
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Tonoplast
Membrane that surrounds a vacuole.
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Utilitarianism
The ethical framework that holds that the right course of action is that which maximises the amount of happiness or other good in the world.
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Vasoconstriction
The narrowing of blood vessels such as arterioles.
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Vasodilation
The widening of blood vessels such as arterioles.
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Vacuole
A region in a plant cell containing cell sap and surrounded by a cell membrane.
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Vas deferens
One of a pair of tubes in a male mammal which carries sperms from the testis to the urethra when *********** takes place.
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Vascular bundle
In the stems and leaves of young plants, particularly those which are not woody, the vascular tissue is found in bundles. These vascular bundles contain xylem vessels and phloem tubes.
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Venous return
The blood returning to the atria of the heart along the veins.
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White blood cell
The blood contains several types of white blood cell, all involved in helping the body to combat infection.
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Xylem
Xylem is a plant tissue whose main function is to transport water and mineral ions from the roots, up through the stem to the leaves.
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Zygote
In sexual reproduction, a male gamete fuses with a female gamete to form a zygote. This process is called fertilisation.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Immunity that develops following an infection.

Back

Active natural immunity

Card 3

Front

Enzymes in the acrosome digest the follical cells and zona pellucida.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A protein found in many cells. Actin plays an important part in muscle contraction. In a muscle fibre, actin forms the thin filaments.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The formation of a new species due to reduced gene flow between two populations as a result of geographical isolation.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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