Biology Unit 4 Flashcards - Respiration

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What is the first process of Respiration?
Glycolysis
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What does Aerobic respiration require and produce?
Oxygen and produces carbon dioxide, water and much ATP
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What does Anaerobic respiration require and produce?
Doesn't require oxygen and produces lactate or ethanol and carbon dioxide and a little ATP
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What are the 4 stages of Respiration?
Glycolysis, Link reaction, Krebs cycle and Electron transport chain
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Where does Glycolysis occur?
Happens in the cytoplasm
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What is the hexose in Glycolysis and what is one?
A hexose is a 6-carbon molecule usually Glucose
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Explain what happens to glucose in Glycolysis?
The Glucose must be phosphorylated so ATP is hydrolysed to ADP + Pi, this provides the energy to activate Glucose which becomes phosphorylated glucose
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What happens to the phosphorylated glucose?
It splits into 2 molecules of Triose phosphate (3 carbon)
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What happens to Triose phosphate in Glycolysis?
Hydrogen is removed from TP and transferred to a hydrogen-carrier molecule known as NAD to form reduced NAD, the TP is therefore converted into Pyruvate (3 carbon)
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What is the Net gain of Glycolysis?
2 X ATP molecules, 2 X reduced NAD molecules, 2 X Pyruvate (3 carbon)
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Is Glycolysis aerobic respiration or anaerobic repsiration
Aerobic respiration but is also the beginning of anaerobic respiration
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Where does the Link Reaction take place?
Mitochondria
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Why doesn't Glycolysis happen inside the mitochondria?
As glucose cannot fit through the membrane
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What happens to Pyruvate during the Link reaction?
It becomes oxidised by removing hydrogen
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What happens to the hydrogen removed in the Link Reaction?
It is accepted by NAD to form reduced NAD which is later used to produce ATP
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What is an acetyl group's role in the Link reaction?
Acetyl group is a 2 carbon molecule that combines to a molecule called coenzyme A (CoA) to produce a compound called acetylcoenzyme A
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What is the chemical equation for the Link reaction?
Pyruvate + NAD + CoA -- acetyl CoA + reduced NAD + CO2
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Where does the Krebs cycle take place?
In the matrix of the mitochondria
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Explain the Krebs cycle
The acetylcoenzymes A combines with a 4 - carbon molecule to produce a 6 - molecule which loses CO2 and hydrogens which produces ATP
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What are the products of the Krebs cycle?
2 X ATP is released, 6 X NAD and 2 X FAD becomes reduced, 4 X CO2 is released and 16 X Hydrogen is released
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What happens during the Electron Transport chain?
The reduced FAD and NAD from the Krebs cycle and used in a series of oxidation/reduction reactions where hydrogen is removed and ATP is produced
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What happens at the end of the Electron Transport chain?
The electrons combine with these protons and oxygen to form water
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What is the oxygen's role in Respiration?
Is the final acceptor of electrons in the electron transport chain
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Describe Anaerobic Respiration in Animals
Pyruvate from Glycolysis is converted into Lactate by reduced NAD which becomes reformed NAD which is regenerated for Glycolysis
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Describe Anaerobic Respiration in Yeast and some plant tissue
Pyruvate from respiration is converted into Ethanol and Co2 by reduced NAD which becomes NAD which is regenerated for Glycolysis
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does Aerobic respiration require and produce?

Back

Oxygen and produces carbon dioxide, water and much ATP

Card 3

Front

What does Anaerobic respiration require and produce?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the 4 stages of Respiration?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where does Glycolysis occur?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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