Biology Flashcards

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  • Created by: Sara
  • Created on: 22-03-13 12:27
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The blueprint from which a copy is made
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Gene
Length of DNA on a chromosome normally coding for a particular polypeptide
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Haploid
Half the chromosome number
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Homologous
A pair of chromosomes, one maternal and one paternal, that have the same gene loci and therefore determine the same features
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Chromatid
One of the two copies of a chromosome that are joined together by a single centromere prior to cell division
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Degenerate
More than one triplet codes for each amino acid
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Universal
The same in all living organisms
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Stop-Code
Act as terminating signals
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Non-overlapping
Each triplet is read seperately
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Polysome System
A number of ribosomes are translating a single mRNA. Many polypeptides are formed
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Activation (of tRNA)
When the specific amino acid attaches to tRNA using ATP
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rRNA
Transfers information from DNA into proteins. It sits in the ribosome, decoding mRNA and assisting in translation
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mRNA
Codes for the chemical blueprint for a protein
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tRNA
Transports specific amino acids to the ribosome to add to the polypeptide chain
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Genotype
The genetic make-up of an organism
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Monoclonal Antibody
Many copies of one type of antibody
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Antigen
A non-self-protein that is recognised by the immune system and brings about an immune response
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Dehiscence
To burst open releasing pollen grains
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Dormancy
A period when active growth is suspended. Germination occurs when specific conditions are met
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Allele
One of the different forms of a gene
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Carrier
An individual with one normal allele and one potential harmful recessive allele. The individual is phenotypically normal
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Phenotype
The observable characteristics of an organism
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Genotype
The genetic constitution of an organism, as opposed to its physical appearance
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Heterozygous
In a diploid organism: having two different alleles at the locus in question
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Homozygous
In a diploid organism, having two identical alleles at the locus in question
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Non-disjunction
A faulty cell division where one of the cells receives two copies of a chromosome while the other gets none
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Polyploidy
An increase in a complete set of chromosomes
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Oncogene
A mutated gene that causes cancer
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Selective Advantage
Characteristic of an organism that enables it to survive and reproduce better than other organisms in a population in a given environment
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Selection Pressure
The environmental force altering the frequency of alleles in a population
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Population
A group of interbreeding individuals of the same species, occupying the same habitat at the same time
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Gene Pool
The total number of alleles in a population at any one time
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Allele Frequency
The number of times an allele occurs within a gene pool
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Genetic Drift
Chance variations in allele frequencies in a population
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Natural Selection
A process that encourages the transmission of favourable alleles and hinders the transmission of unfavourable ones and contributes to evolution
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Isolation
Occurs when a barrier prevents two populations from breeding with one another
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Species
A group of similar organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring
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Deme
A breeding sub-unit
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Speciation
The evolution of new species from existing species
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Hybrid
The off-spring resulting from cross breeding of different species
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Clone
A group of genetically identical organisms formed from a single parent as a result of asexual reproduction by artificial means
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In vitro Fertilisation
A technique which involves mixing the egg or oocyte with sperm in a dish where fertilisation takes place
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Differentiate
Cells become specialised for different functions
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Stem Cell
An undifferentiated cell capable of dividing to give rise to cells which can develop into different types of specialised cells
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Ethics
A set of standards that are followed by a particular group of individuals and are designed to regulate their behaviour. They determine what is acceptable
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Totipotent Cells
Cell which can mature into a body cell
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Meristem
Growing points where cells divide rapidly by mitosis
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Gene Probe
Short piece of DNA the sequences of which are complementary to the mutated sequences
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Liposome
Minute spheres of lipid molecules, capable of carrying DNA inside them
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Donor DNA
A gene that is isolated for insertion
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Restriction Enzyme
Enzyme which cuts DNA molecules between specific base sequences
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Sticky Ends
The two ends of the foreign DNA segment. They have a short row of unpaired bases that match the complementary bases at the two ends of the opened-up plasmid DNA sample
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Reverse Transcriptase
Enzyme used to synthesise DNA from mRNA in specific cells
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Intron
Portion of DNA within a gene that does not code for a polypeptide
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Plasmid
Circular loop of DNA found in bacteria. The plasmid is known as a vector
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DNA Ligase
Enzyme which joins together portions of DNA
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Recombinant DNA
DNA which results from the combination of fragments from two different organisms
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Transgenic
An organism that has had its genotype altered producing a new strain of organism. Also known as genetically modified organisms
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Electrophoresis
Exposing the fragments of DNA to an electric current in a gel trough
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Primer
Short sequences of nucleotides
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Biomass
The mass of living material present at a given time
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Succession
The change in structure and composition of species of a community over time
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Climax Community
A community that has reached equilibrium with its environment and no further change occurs
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Seres
Stage in succession
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Resistance
The ability of an organism to survive exposure to a dose of that poison which would normally be lethal to it
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Ecotourism
The responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people
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Monoculture
The simultaneous growth of large numbers of crop plants of similar age and type within a defined area
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Soil Erosion
The removal of topsoil containing valuable nutrients
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Coppicing
The cutting down of trees close to the ground and then left for several years to re-grow
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Selective Cutting
Felling only some of the largest trees, leaving the others in place
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Long Rotation Time
Leaving each part of the forest for many years before re-harvesting it
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Overfishing
The rate at which fish are harvested exceeds the rate at which they reproduce
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Drift Netting
Suspending a net from floats stretched between two boats so that fish swim into it
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Trawling
Dragging a large net through the water, catching whatever happens to be in the way
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Eutrophication
The artificial enrichment of aquatic habitats by excess nutrients, often caused by run-off of fertilisers, resulting in a reduction in the oxygen level of the water
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Biomass
Any kind of fuel that is biological in origin (Ethanol and diesel made from crops)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Length of DNA on a chromosome normally coding for a particular polypeptide

Back

Gene

Card 3

Front

Half the chromosome number

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A pair of chromosomes, one maternal and one paternal, that have the same gene loci and therefore determine the same features

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

One of the two copies of a chromosome that are joined together by a single centromere prior to cell division

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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