Biology Unit 2- Cells, tissues and organs

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  • Created by: Bella B
  • Created on: 08-01-16 15:53
What are all living things made up of?
Cells!
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What features do Animal and Plant cells have in common?
Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Cell Membrane, Mitochondria, Ribosomes.
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What is the function of the NUCLEUS?
Contains genetic material, which controls the activities of the cell.
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What is the function of the CYTOPLASM?
Most chemical processes take place here + it's controlled by ENZYMES.
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What is the function of the CELL MEMBRANE?
Controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell.
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What is the function of MITOCHONDRIA?
Most energy is released by RESPIRATION here.
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What is the function of RIBOSOMES?
Protein synthesis happens here.
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What are the extra parts of Plant Cells that are not in Animal cells?
Cell Wall, Chloroplasts and Permanent Vacuole.
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Function of the CELL WALL?
Strengthens the cell.
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Function of CHLOROPLASTS?
Contatin CHLOROPHYLL- absorbs light energy for photosynthesis.
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Function of PERMANENT VACUOLE?
Filled with CELL SAP to help keep the cell TURGID.
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What is a BACTERIAL CELL?
A bacterium is a single- celled organism. Has a different structure to an animal or plant cell. Has a cytoplasm, membrane and a surrounding cell wall, BUT genetic material is not stored in distinct nucleus.
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What is YEAST?
A single-celled organism. They have a nucleus.
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What are some examples of SPECIALISED CELLS?
Leaf cell, Root Hair cell, Sperm cell and Red blood cells
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What are specialised cells?
Cells may be specialised to perform a particular function. Their structure will allow them to carry this function out.
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What's the function + adaptation of a LEAF CELL?
F: absorbs light for photosynthesis. A: packed with chloroplasts, regular shaped + closely packed cells form a continuous layer for efficient absorption of sunlight.
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What's the function + adaptation of a ROOT HAIR CELL?
F: absorbs water and mineral ions from the cell. A: long "finger-like" process with very thin wall, which gives a large surface area
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What's the function + adaptation of SPERM CELLS?
F: fertilises an egg cell (female gamete) A: head contains genetic info. and an enzyme to help penetrate the egg cell membrane.
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What's the function + adaptation of RED BLOOD CELLS?
F: contains HAEMOGLOBIN to carry oxygen. A: thin outer membrane to let oxygen diffuse through easily + shape increases the surface area to allow more oxygen to be absorbed efficiently. No NUCLEUS.
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What's DIFFUSION?
Diffusion occurs when particles spread. They move from a region where they are in a HIGH concentration to a region where they are LOW concentration. Happens when PARTICLES ARE FREE TO MOVE.
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What are examples of Diffusion in the body?
Gut and Lungs.
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What happens to the oxygen in the lungs? (diffusion).
Oxygen moves from ALVEOLAR AIR SPACE ---> BLOOD circulating around the lungs
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What happens to digested food products in the gut? (diffusion)
Digested food products move from GUT CAVITY ---> BLOOD in capillary of villus
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What is a TISSUE?
A group of specialised cells that have a similar structure and function.
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What are some examples of tissues?
Muscular Tissue, (contracts- bringing movement) Glandular Tissue (produces substances such as: ENZYMES and HORMONES) and Epithelial Tissue (covers some parts of the body).
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What is differentiation?
The process by which a cell becomes a specialised cell.
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What is an ORGAN?
A group of tissues in a living organism that have been adapted to perform a specific function.
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What are the tissues in the Stomach?
Muscular tissue- to "churn up" the contents, Glandular tissue- to produce digestive juices (like acid+enzymes) and Epithelial tissue- to cover the outside of the stomach.
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What are the 2 important functions of the PANCREAS?
It makes hormones to control our blood sugar. It also makes the enzymes that digest our food.
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What are ORGAN SYSTEMS?
Different organs are combined in Organ Systems to carry out particular functions in the body. These functions include transporting the blood or digesting food.
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What are the adaptations for exchange for the LUNGS, SMALL INTESTINE and KIDNEY?
Lungs- gaseous exchange. Small Intestine- digested foods move from the SI into the blood. Kidney- many different dissolved substances are filtered out of the blood into the kidney tubules.
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What are some adaptations for exchange?
Increasing the Surface Area over which materials are exchanged (bigger SA= faster diffusion can take place), increasing the concentration gradient across the membrane (steeper the CG= faster diffusion takes place) and Good Blood Supply.
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What are the levels of organisations?
CELLS-> TISSUES-> ORGANS-> ORGAN SYSTEMS-> WHOLE BODY.
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What are some examples of ORGAN SYSTEMS?
The Nervous System, the Respiratory System, the Reproductive System and the Digestive System.
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What does the STOMACH do?
Digests food.
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What does the LIVER do?
Produces BILE.
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What does the SMALL INTESTINE do?
Digests and absorbs SOLUBLE FOODS.
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What does the LARGE INTESTINE do?
Absorbs WATER from undigested food, producing FAECES.
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What are the Tissues found in PLANTS?
Epidermal Tissue (covers the plant), Mesophyll Tissue (carries out photosynthesis) and Xylem and Phloem Tissue (transports substances around the plant).
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Why are XYLEM and PHLOEM tissue in the centre of the roots?
To withstand stretching forces.
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What does BILE do?
Neutralises the acid that is added to food in the stomach= alkaline conditions which enzymes in the small intestine work most effectively in.
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What do PLANT and ALGAL cells also have?
A CELL WALL- strengthens the cell.
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What is passed through all cell membranes by diffusion and why?
OXYGEN- for respiration.
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The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of ????
The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of DIFFUSION!
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What features do Animal and Plant cells have in common?

Back

Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Cell Membrane, Mitochondria, Ribosomes.

Card 3

Front

What is the function of the NUCLEUS?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the function of the CYTOPLASM?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the function of the CELL MEMBRANE?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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