Biology Molecules

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Nucleotides are made up of ?
Pentose Sugar, Nitrogen base, phosphate group
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Two types of nitrogen bases
1) Purines- Adenine and Guanine. 2) Cytosine and Thymine
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RNA Nitrogen bases
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Uracil
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Adenine pairs with
Thymine
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Cytosine pairs with
Guanine
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The three parts of a Nucleotide are joined by
Condensation reaction with the elimination of H2O
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A DNA molecule is made up of
Two polynucleotide, Bases pair up which results in double helix
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what bond is between the nitrogen bases
Hydrogen bonds
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When the sugar and phosphate join what bond forms ?
Phosphodiester bond
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DNA Replication( 1st step)
Two stands of the DNA molecule unzip along line of hydrogen bonds, by DNA enzyme helicase
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DNA Replication ( 2nd step)
Two strands acts as template
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DNA Replication ( 3rd step)
Exposed bases attract free floating DNA nucleotides and new hydrogen bonds are formed
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DNA Replication ( 4th step)
DNA Polymerase and DNA Ligase join Nucleotides together.
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DNA Replication (5th step)
Results in two new strands of DNA identical with original piece.
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Proteins are made up of
amino acids
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Degenerate
64 possible combinations more than enough for 20 amino acids
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A sequence of three base pairs
Codon
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Triplet bases on the TRNA
Anti Codon
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RNA
Single stranded, ribose, uracil
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MRNA
Carries information from the DNA into nucleus out into cytoplasm
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TRNA
Picks up specific amino acids from cytoplasm to ribosomes
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Shape of TRNA
Clover shape with Hydrogen bonds
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what do proteins contain
Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen
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Amino acids are polymers of
protein
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Amino acid structure
NH2 amino group, R group, COOH carboxylic acid group
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Amino aciids join together by a reaction between
Amino group and the Carboxylic Group of another amino acid
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What bond do amino acids from
Peptide bond
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When polypeptide is folded or coiled it forms
Protein
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Primary structure
sequence of amino acids that make up polypeptide chain
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Secondary structure
Hydrogen bonds form between amino acids coils up into an alpha helix or beta pleated sheets
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Tertiary structure
3D shape of Polypeptide chain held together by disulphide bonds, ionic bonds and hydrogen bond
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Quaternary Structure
More than one polypeptide join
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Globular proteins
Spherical shape, Soluble, Disulphid, ionic and hydrogen bonds
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Fibrous proteins
parallel polypeptide chains cross linked to form fibres or sheets, insoluble
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Carbohydates are made up of
Carbon, Hydrogen And Oxygen
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What are monosacharides
simple sugars
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Three Examples of Monosaccharides
Triose, pentose, hexose
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what are disacharides
Double sugars
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what are disaccharides made up of
Two monosacharides joined together in condensation reaction
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what covalent bond is formed in disaccharides
glycosidic bond
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Sucrose
glucose + fructose. stored in plants as sugar cane
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lactose
glucose + galactose. carbohydate milk
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maltose
glucose + glucose. germinating seed
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What are polysaccahride
made of many monosaccharide units joined by glycosidic bonds
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Starch
made up of long chains of alpha glucose, energy store in plants, insoluble doesn't exert osmotic effect and compact
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Amylose
Unbranced polymer, 1,4 glycosidic bons
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Amylopectin
Branched, lots of terminal ends, 1,4 & 1,6 glycosidic bonds
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Glycogen
found in animal cells in liver and muscle cells
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Lipids
Important source of energy, protective, waterproof, insulator
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what are fats and oils made up of
fatty acids and glycerol
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saturated
no double carbon to carbon bonds, maxium number of hydrogen atoms, solid at room temperature
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unsaturated
double carbon to carbon bonds, liquid at room temp, forms kinks
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polyunsaturated
more than one double bond
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monounsaturated
one double bond
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Triglycerides
When a gylcerol combines with three fatty acids ester bond formed in condensation reaction
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Two types of nitrogen bases

Back

1) Purines- Adenine and Guanine. 2) Cytosine and Thymine

Card 3

Front

RNA Nitrogen bases

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Adenine pairs with

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Cytosine pairs with

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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