biology lipids

what substances do lipids contain?
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen plus phosphorus in phosholipids
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what are lipids properties?
non-polar and insoluble and can't form hydrogen bonds
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when are lipids soluble?
in organic solvents such as acetone etur
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what is lipids form?
fats are solids at room temperature whereas oils are liquid
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what are lipids' function?
energy storage
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what is it contained in?
seeds and fruit
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where are lipids stored in animals?
in adipose tissue large fat cells under skin and around organs
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how are lipids better at storing energy than carbohydrates?
they have a high yield of energy per gram. fatty acids yield 39 kj/g
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what is the difference between lipids' yield and carbohydrates' yield?
1 gram of fat yields twice as much energy as 1 gram of carbohydrates
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how do lipids help plants and animals?
seeds can be small and light e.g. sunflower seeds. animals can use fat during times of famine and for energy during hibernation e.g a mouse
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how do fats help aquatic organisms?
helps with buoyancy
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what are the different types of lipids?
triglycerides, phospholipids and both include glycerol and fatty acids
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what does glycerol look like?
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what does a fatty acid look like?
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define saturated
all the carbon atoms are joined by single bonds
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define unsaturated
contain one or more double bond between carbon atoms therefore have fewer hydrogen atoms
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what are monounsaturated carbon bonds?
1 carbon to carbon bond
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what are polyunsaturated carbon bonds?
>1 carbon to carbon double bond
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define cis
fats have hydrogen atoms on the same side of molecules by the carbon to carbon double bond. the molecules are kinked and are usually oil at room temperature
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define trans
fats have the hydrogens on opposite sides of the molecules by the carbon to carbon bond. they are made artificially from vegetable or fish oils to give solid fats for processed foods
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how are triglycerides formed?
by condensation reactions between glycerol and 3 fatty acids
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how do you calculate Body Mass Index?
mass (kg) / Height squared (m)
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how are phospholipids formed?
composed of glycerol, fatty acids and phosphate group
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how do phospholipids arrange at air-water and oil-water?
arrange themselves with their heads in the water and their tails out. They are an important constituent of cell membranes.
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how are steroids lipids?
because they are hydrophobic and insoluble in water but they do not resemble lipids since they have a structure composed of four fused rings
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what is cholesterol?
it is the most common steroid. it is the precursor to a number of hormones including testosterone, oestrogen and progesterone.
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what is cholesterol a component of?
the phospholipid bi-layer and plays a role in the structure and function of membrane.
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Card 2


what are lipids properties?


non-polar and insoluble and can't form hydrogen bonds

Card 3


when are lipids soluble?


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Card 4


what is lipids form?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


what are lipids' function?


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