Molecular Biology

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  • MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
    • MOLECULES
      • RIBOSE
        •  
      • SATURATED FATTY ACID
        •  
      • AMINO ACID
        •  
      • UN-SATURATED FATTY ACID
        •  
      • GLUCOSE
        • ALPHA
          •  
        • BETA
          •  
    • WATER
      • ADHESIVE
        • Attracted to other substances
      • COHESIVE
        • Attracted to other water molecules
        • Allows water to move through the xylem
      • LATENT HEAT CAPACITY
        • Causes rapid cooling
        • Allows temperature to be controlled
      • HIGH SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY
        • Maintains constant internal body conditions in organisms
      • STRUCTURE
        • Oxygen is negative, and hydrogen is positive
        • Forms hydrogen bonds
    • LIPIDS
      • ENERGY STORAGE
        • short-term storage
        • soluble
        • easily and more rapidly digested
          • fast energy use
        • easily transported
        • no effect on osmosis
        • long-term storage
        • difficult to transport
        • insoluble
        • more energy per gram
          • lighter store
      • FATTY ACIDS
        • Saturated: Every carbon has all of its bonds made
        • Unsaturated: At least one carbon bond is free
          • Poly-unsaturated: More than one C=C bond
          • Mono-unsaturated: One C=C bond
            • Cis-   isomers
              • causes a kink
              • same side
              • loosely packed
            • Trans-isomers
              • different side
              • can be tightly packed
              • doesn't cause a kink
    • PROTEINS
      • The Levels of Protein Structure
        • Primary: The order in which the specific amino acids are combined.
        • Secondary: Refers to the coiling or the folding of a polypeptide chain.
        • Tertiary:  Refers to the 3D structure of the polypeptide chain.
        • Quaternary: Refers to the structure of a protein maromolecule formed by interactions between multiple peptide chains.
      • POLAR AND NON-POLAR AMINO ACIDS
        • Polar
          • Hydrophilic   R groups.
          • For membrane-bound proteins, they line the interior pores.
          • For water-soluble proteins, they are found on the surface.
        • Non-Polar
          • Hydrophobic R groups.
          • For water-soluble proteins, they are found in the centre.
          • For membrane-bound proteins, they line the interior pores.
      • TYPES OF PROTEIN
        • Rubisco: The enzyme that catalyses the first reaction of the Calvin Cycle.
        • Insulin: A hormone, produced by the pancreas, that causes a decrease in blood sugar levels and an increase of sugar inside the body’s cells.
        • Rhodopsin: A pigment, found in the retina of the eye, which is particularly useful in conditions of low light.
        • Immunoglo-bulin: Another name for an antibody that recognises antigens, as part of the immune system’s response.
        • Spider Silk: A fibrous protein spun for making webs and drop lines, and building nests
        • Collagen:  The main protein component of connective tissue, which is mostly found in skin, tendons and ligaments.
      • FIBROUS AND GLOBULAR PROTEINS
        • FIBROUS PROTEINS
          • Stability: Less sensitive to changes in temperature, pH, etc.
          • Sequence: Repetitive amino acid sequence.
          • Solubility: (Generally) insoluble in water.
          • Role: Structural, for strength and support.
          • Shape: Long and narrow.
        • GLOBULAR PROTEINS
          • Shape: Spherical.
          • Function: Functional, for transport, catalysing reactions.
          • Solubility: (Generally) soluble in water.
          • Stability: More sensitive to changes in temperature, pH, etc.
          • Sequence: Irregular amino acid sequence.
    • SUGARS
      • Saccharides
        • Monosaccha-rides: glucose; galactose; fructose
        • Disaccharid-es: maltose; lactose; sucrose
        • Polysacchar-ides: starch; glycogen; cellulose
      • USES
        • ANIMALS
          • Glucose is used as an energy source
          • Lactose is the sugar found in milk for newborn babies
          • Glycogen is a short term energy store
        • PLANTS
          • Fructose makes fruits taste sweet
          • Sucrose is used as an energy store
          • Cellulose fibres make the cell walls strong
      • Condensation Reaction
        • When two monosaccha-rides join to form a disaccharide and release water
        • Hydrolysis Reaction
          • When a disaccharide is split, with the use of water
      • ENERGY STORAGE
        • short-term storage
        • soluble
        • easily and more rapidly digested
          • fast energy use
        • easily transported
        • no effect on osmosis
        • long-term storage
        • difficult to transport
        • insoluble
        • more energy per gram
          • lighter store
  • When two monosaccha-rides join to form a disaccharide and release water

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