What type of molecule is water?
Water is a polar molecule. It can appear positive or negative (dipolar)
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Negative charge ion at one end and positive charge ion at the other
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How is water dipolar?
Oxygen has a slight negative charge and hydrogen has a slight positive charge
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Hydrogen bonds
Positive and negative ends of the molecules (water) are attracted to each other
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Sticking together of water molecules
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How is cohesion important to living organisms?
Water molecules cohere together up the xylem vessels at low pressure. This means water forms continuous columns up to the top of a tree for photosynthesis
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Forming hydrogen bonds with other molecules
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How is adhesion useful to living organisms?
It is useful in leaves as cellulose molecules in cell walls. Water evaporates into the leaf air space and adhesive forces cause water to be drawn out of xylem vessels. Ensures cells walls are moist for gas exchange
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Latent heat of vaporisation
Energy required to change a substance from liquid to a gas
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What is water's latent heat vaporisation?
Water has a high heat latent of vaporisation because of hydrogen bonds
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How is water a good coolant?
Inside our bodies energy is used to evaporate water to create sweat
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How is water a high specific heat capacity?
It requires a lot of energy to raise the temperature. Conversely, a lot of energy must be lost before the temperature falls.
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How is high specific heat capacity useful to living organisms?
Aquatic environments do not under go large fluctuations in temperature as water maintains a constant temperature so fish survive
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What particles dissolve in water?
Charged particles can dissolve in water
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How is water useful in blood plasma?
Blood plasma is mostly water and so substances can be dissolved and transported around
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What substances are dissolved and transported in blood plasma?
Sodium chloride; amino acids; glucose
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How is oxygen transported around the body?
Oxygen is non-polar but it is small so some is dissolved. The saturation level is too low to allow for Aerobic respiration so oxygen has to be carried by haemoglobin
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What substances don't dissolve in water?
Lipids they are carried in the blood as liprotein complexes (layer of phospholipidsin contact with the water)
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A substance made of only one kind of atom
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2 or more atoms bonded together by covalent bonds
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An atom or molecule that has lost or gained an electron
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Molecule based on carbon atoms with carbon to carbon bonds
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Chemicals which do not contain carbon to carbon bonds
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synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules including the formation of macro-molecules from monomers by condensation reactions
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The breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecules including the hydrolysis of macro-molecules into monomers
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Reaction which links monomers to form polymers a molecule of water is released each time a bond is formed
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Reaction which occurs to break down polymers into monomers. a molecule of water is chemically added each time a bond is broken.
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Negative charge ion at one end and positive charge ion at the other

Card 3


How is water dipolar?


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Card 4


Hydrogen bonds


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