Biology definitions

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Abiotic factors
non living conditions in a habitat
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Activation energy
The energy required to initiate a reaction
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Active site
area of an enzyme with a shape complementary to a specific substrate
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Active transport
movement of particles across a plasma membrane against a concentration gradient.
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a nucleotide composed of a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar and 2 phosphates
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a nucleotide composed of a pentose sugar and 3 phosphates
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antibodies that cause pathogens to clump up so they are easily engulfed by phagocytes
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different versions of the same genes
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Amino acids
monomers used to build polypeptides
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Anabolic reactions
reactions of metabolism that construct molecules molecules from smaller units.
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Analogous structures
structures that have adapted to perform the same function but have different origins
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third stage of mitosis when chromatids are seperated to opposite poles of the cell
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Antibiotic resistant bacteria
bacteria that undergo mutation to become resistant to a antibiotic
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a chemical or compound that kill or inhibits the growth of bacteria
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y shaped glycoproteins made by B cells of the immune system in response to the presence of an antigen
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identifying chemical on the surface of a cell that triggers an immune response
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antigen antibody complex
the complex formed when an antibody binds to a antigen
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antigen presenting cell
a cell that displays foreign antigen complexed with major histocompatibility complexes on their surfaces
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antisense strand
the strand of DNA that runs from 3' to 5' and is complementary to the sense strand.
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anti toxins
antibodies that bind to toxins produced by pathogens so they no longer have an effect.
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the cell walls and intercellular spaces of plant cells
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Apoplast route
movement of substances through the cell walls and cell spaces by diffusion and into cytoplasm by active transport
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an abnormal rhythm of the heart
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objects or structures seen through a microscope that have been created during the processing of the specimen
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artificial active immunity
immunity which results from exposure to a safe form of a pathogen
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artifical passive immunity
immunity which results from the administration of antibodies from another animal
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asexual reproduction
the production of genetically identical offspring
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the products of photosynthesis that are transported around a plant
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atrial fibrillation
an abnormal rhythm of the heart when the atria beat very fast and incompletely
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atrioventricular node
stimulates the ventricles to contract after imposing a slight delay to ensure atrial contraction is complete
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autoimmune disease
a condition or illness resulting from an autoimmune response
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autoimmune response
response when the immune system acts against its own cells and detroys healthy tissue
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organisms that acquires nutrients by photosynthesis
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B effector cells
B lymphocytes that divide to form plasma cell clones
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B lymphocytes
which matures in the bone marrow and produce antibodies
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B memory cell
lives a long time and provides immunological memory of the antibody needed against a specific antigen
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Belt transect
two parallel lines are maked along the ground and samples are taken of the area at specified points.
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benedicts reagent
an alkaline solution of cooper 11 sulfate used in the chemical tests for reducing sugars and non reducing. Brick red is reducing positive
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Beta pleated sheet
sheet like secondary structure of proteins
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Binomial nomenclature
the naming system- first: genus, second: species
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the variety of living organisms present in an area
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biuret test
the chemical test for proteins; peptide bonds form violet complexes with copper in an alkaline solution
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Bohr effect
the effect of carbon dioxide concentration on the uptake and release of oxygen by haemoglobin
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a slow heart rhythm of below 60 BPM
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breating rate
number of breaths taken per minute
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bulk transport
a form of active transport where large molecules or whole bacterial cells are moved into or out of a cell by endo or exocytosis
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Bundle of his
conducting tissue commposed of purkyne fibres that pass through the septum
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a polysaccharide containg beta 1-3 linkages and beta 1-6 linkages between glucose monomers in the plant that is important for infection response
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the compound formed when carbon dioxide combines with haemoglobin
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organic polymers composed of the elements c,H and O2 in the ratio: Cx(H2O)y
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Carbonic anhydrase
enzyme which catalyses the reversible reaction between co2 and water to form carbonic acid
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cardiac cycle
the events of a single heartbeat composed of systole and diastole.
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carrier protein
membrane protein that plays a role in transport of substances through a membrane
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strong, flexible connective tissue found in many areas of the bodies of humans
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reactions of metabolism that break down molecules releasing energy
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an enzyme that catalyses the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide
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cell cycle
the oordered sequence of events that take place in a cell, resulting in division of the nucleus and the formation of identical daughter cells
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cell signalling
a complex system of intercellular communication
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a polysaccharide formed from beta glucose molecules. it is unable to coil or branch.
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cell wall
a strong but flexible layer
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composed of microtubules
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region at which two chromatids are held together
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channel proteins
provide a hydrophilic channel through a membrane
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control mechanisms of the cell cycle
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sections of DNA which become entangled after crossing over, break and rejoin during anaphase 1
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chloride shift
the movement of chloride ionsinto the red blood cells as H+ ions move out
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organelles that are responsible for photosynthesis in plant cells. Contains chlorophyll
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2 identical copies of DNA held together by centromere
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uncondensed DNA in a complex with histones
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structures of condesed and coiled DNA in the form of chromatin
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circulatory system
transport system of an animal
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clonal expansion
the mass proliferation of antibody producing cells by clonal selection
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clonal selection
exposure to prolieferation of an antigen stimulates the cell with the correct antibody to produce numerous clones
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closed circulatory system
where the blood is in vessels and does not come into direct contact with the cells beyond the vessel
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Clostridium difficile
gram positive bacteria that is resistant to antibiotics
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a three base sequence of DNA that codes for an amino acid
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non protein components necessary for the functioning of an enzyme
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cohesion tension theory
the movement of water through a plant during transpiration
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communicable disease
disease that ca be passed from one to another
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all population of species living in one habitat
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companion cells
active cells found next to the sieve tube elements
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competitive inhibitors
an inhibitor that competes with substrate to bind to active sites
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complemetary base pairing
specific hydrogen bonding between nucleic acid bases. A-T C-G
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compound light microscope
a light microscope that uses 2 lenses to magnify an object
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condensation reaction
a reaction between 2 molecules resulting in the formation of a larger molecules and release of water.
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continuous variation
a characteristic that can take any value within a range eg height
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staining or treating specific cell components so they are visible
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convergent evolution
organisms evolve similarities because they adapt to similar environments
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correlation coefficient
statistical test to cosider the relationship between two sets of data
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countercurrent exchange system
when two different components flow in two directions
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second stain with a contrasting colour
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crossing over
see chiasmata
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cell signalling molecules produced by mast cells in damaged tissue that attract phagocytes
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cell division stage in the mitotic phase
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the bursting of an animal cell caused by hydrostatic pressure
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internal fluid of cells composed of cytosol
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a network of fibres in the cytoplasm of a cell
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change in tertiary structure of a protein or enzyme
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the molecule responsible for the storage of genetic information
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the stages of the cardiac cycle in which the heart relaxes and the ventricles fill with blood
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dicotyledonous plants
plants that produce seeds containing 2 cotyledons, which act as food storage
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differential staining
specific tains to distinguish different types of cells
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the process of a cell becoming differentiated. Involves selective expressioon of genes in a genome
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normal chromosome number; 2 chromosomes of each type
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a molecule comprising 2 monosaccharides, joined by glycosidic bonds
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discontinuous variation
variation that can only result in certain values. eg blood type
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divergent evolution
species diverge over time into 2 species resulting in new species less like the original
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DNA helicase
enzyme that catalyses the unwinding of DNA strands
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DNA polymerase
enzyme that catalyses the formation of phosphodiester bonds between nucleotides
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DNA replication
semi conservative process of the production of identical copies of DNA
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double circulatory system
blood travels twice through the heart , heart to lungs, heart to body
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ectopic heartbeat
extra heartbeats that are out of the normal rhythm
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elastic recoil
ability to return to original shape and size
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measures changes in electrical conductivity of the skin that result from the heart
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Electron microscopy
microscope that employs a beam of electrons to illuminate the specimen.
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Emulsion test
test for lipids using ethanol
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bulk transport into cells
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eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic cells
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end product inhibition
the product of a reaction inhibits the enzyme
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enzyme product complex
result of enzyme catalysed reaction
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biological catalysts that interact with substrate molecules to facilitate a chemical reaction
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enzyme substrate complex
when substrate is bound to active site
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when a communicable disease spreads rapidly at a national level
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multicellular organisms like animals
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eukaryotic cells
cells with a nucleus and other membrane bound cells
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ex situ conservation
conservation methods outside of the natural habitst
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exchange surfaces
surfaces over whcih materials are exchanged from one to another
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bulk transport of materials out of a cell
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external skeleton of some organisms. insects
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expiratory reserve volume
extra amount of air that can be forced out over and above the normal exhalation
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facilitated diffusion
diffusion across plasma membranes through protein channels
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fatty acids
long chain carboxylic acids
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fibrous proteins
long, insoluble structural proteins
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fluid mosaic model
model of the structure of a membrane in which phospholipid are free to move and proteins of various shapes and sizes are embedded in the layer
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the remains of impressions of a prehistoric plant
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founder effect
when a few individuals of a species clonise a new area, initiall experiencing a loss of genetic variation
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biological kingdom
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haploid sex cells produced by meiosis
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gaseous exchange system
repiratory gases are exchanged in an organism
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a section of the DNA that contains the complete sequence of bases to code for a protein
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gene flow
when alleles are transferred from one population to another by interbreeding
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genetic bottleneck
when large numbers of a population die prior to breeding leading to reduced genetic biodiversity
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genetic code
sequences of bases in DNA are the instructions for the sequences of amino acids in the production of proteins
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genetic variation
a variety of different combinations of alleles in a population
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the gaseous exchange organism of a fish comprised of gill plates, gill filaments and gill lamellae
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globular proteins
spherical water soluble proteins
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a monosaccharide with the chemical formula C6H12O6
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alcohol found in triglycerides
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a branched polysaccharide formed from alpha glucose molecules.
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cell surface membrane lipids with attached carbohydrate molecules
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glycosidic bonds
a covalent bond between 2 monosaccharides
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goblet cells
specialised to secret mucus
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Golgi apparatus
membrane enclosed sacs or cisternae. play a role in modifying and packaging proteins into vesicles
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Gram negative bacteria
bacteria with cell walls that stain red
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Gram positive bacteria
stain purple
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a structure inside chloroplasts composed of a stack of thylakoids
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guard cells
cells that can open and close stomatal pores
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Habitat biodiversity
the number of different habitats found in an area
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red, oxygen carrying pigment of RBCs
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Haemoglobinic acid
copound formed when haemoglobin accepts free H+ ions in its role as a buffer
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the transport medium in insects
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half the normal chromosome number
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organisms that acquire nutrients by the ingestion of others
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Hexose monosaccharide
a monosaccharide composed of 6 carbons
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chemicals produced by mast cells in damaged tissues that make blood vessels dilute and walls leaky
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proteins that form a complex with DNA called chromatin
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homologous chromosomes
matching pair of chromosomes
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hydrolysis reaction
the breakdown of a molecule into smaller molecules and the addition of water
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physical property that is attracted to water
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repeled by water
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plants with adaptations that enable them to survive in very wet habitats
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hydrostatic pressure
pressure caused by water in an enclosed system
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immune response
protects the body by recognising to antigens ad destroying non self antigens
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y shaped glycoproteins that form antibodies
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in situ conservation
conservation methods within the habitat
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independent assortment
arrangement of each homologous pair
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induced fit hypothesis
modified lock and key explanation for enzyme action, the active site is modified in shape by binding to the substrate
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biological responses of vascular tissues to pathogens
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a factor that prevents or reduces the rate of an enzyme controlled reaction
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inspiratory reserve volume
the maximum volume of air that can be breathed in over and above normal inhalation
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a golbular protein hormone involved in the regulation of blood glucose
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intercostal muscles
muscles between ribs that pull upwards during inhalation: internal intercostal
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a type of cytokine produced by t helper cells
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growth period of the cell cycle between divisions
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interspecific variation
the differences between organisms of different species
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intraspecififc variation
differences between organisms of the same species
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iodine test
chemical test for the presence of starch using potassium iodide. Purple black = positive
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ionic bond
chemical bond that involves the donating of an electron
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keystone species
species which are essential for maintaining biodiversity
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the second biggest taxonomic group
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a disaccharide made up of a galactose and glucose monosaccharide
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laser scanning confocal microscope
employs a beam of fluorescence and a pin hole aperture to produce an image
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light microscope
an instrument that uses visible light and glass lenses
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line transect
a line is marked along the ground and samples are taken at specified points
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non polar macromolecules containing C, H,O.
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lung surfactant
contains phospolipids and proteins which coats alveoli and prevents them collapsing
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modified tissue fluid that is collected in the lymph system
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white blood cells that make up the specific immune systems
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specialised vesicles containing hydrolytic enzymes for the breakdown of waste
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large molecular weight
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two glucose molecules linked by glycosidic bonds
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mass transport system
substances are transported in a mass of fluid
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forms of cell division where the nucleus divides twice to produce 4 haploid daughter cells
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a selectively permeable barrier
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membane proteins
protein components of cell surface membranes
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meristematic tissue
tissue found at regions of growth in plants
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short strand of RNA produced by transcription
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second stage of mitosis when chromosomes line up at metaphase plate
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mitochondrial DNA
present within the matrix of a mitochondria
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nuclear division stage in the mitotic phase of the cell cycle
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mitotic phase
period of cell division of the cell cycle
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cultivation of a single crop
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individual molecules that make up a polymer
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a single sugar molecule
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a mutated strain of bacterium staphylococcus aureus
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mucous membranes
membranous linings of body tracts that secrete mucus
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a stem cell that can only differentiate into a range of cell types within a certain type of tissue
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a change in the genetic material which may affect the phenotype of the organism
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muscle which has its own intrinsic rhythm
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natural active immunity
immunity which results from the response of the body to the invasion of a pathogen
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natural passive immunity
the immunity given to an infant by the mother through placenta and colostrum
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natural selection
the process by which organisms best suited to their environment survive and reproduce
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non competitive inhibitors
binds to the enzyme at an allosteric site
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nucleic acids
large polymers formed from nucleotides
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monomers used to form nucleic acids. made of a pentose monosaccharide, phosphate group and nitogenous base
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oncotic pressure
the tendency of water to move into the blood by osmosis as a result of plasma proteins
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bony flap covering gills
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oppurtunistic sample
using organisms that are conveniently available
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binds to pathogens and tag them
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membrane bound compartments
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diffusion of water through partially permeable membranes down a water potential gradient
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oxygen dissociation curve
graph showing relationship between oxygen and haemoglobin at different partial pressures
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when a communicable disease spreads throughout countries
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partially permeable
membrane that allows some substances to cross
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passive transport
does not require energy
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microorganisms that cause disease
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safe antibiotic derived from mould
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pentose monosaccharide
composed of 5 carbons
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peptide bond
bond formed between 2 amino acids
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chains of 2 or more amino acids
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white blood cells recognise non self cells and engulf them
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vesiclein which a ppathogen is engulfed
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plant transport tissue that carries assimilates to all cells
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phosphodiester bonds
covalent bonds formed between the phosphate group of one nucleotide and the OH group of another
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phospholipid bilayer
found in cell membranes
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modified triglycerides where one fatty acid has been replaced with a phosphate group
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evolutionary relationships between organisms
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endocytosis of liquid materials
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main component of blood
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plasma cells
B lymphocytes that produce 2000 antibodies every second
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can differentiate into any type of cell just not a whole organism
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primary immune response
the slow production of antibodies the first time a pathogen is encountered
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single celled organisms
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prosthetic groups
non protein component of a conjugated protein
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enzymes that catalyse the breakdown of proteins
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first stage of mitosis when chromatin condense to form visible chromosomes and the nuclear envelope breaks down
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biological kingdom containing unicellular eukaryotes
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double ringed nitrogenous bases
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purkyne fibres
tissues that conduct the wave of excitation to the apex of the heart
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single ringed nitrogenous bases
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quarternary structure
association of 2 or more protein subunits
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extrinsic glycoproteins that bind chemical signals
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recombinant chromatids
combination from both homologous chromosomes formed by crossing over and chiasmata
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reducing sugar
donate electrons
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reudction division
production of haploid cells
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residual volume
the volume of air that is left in the lungs after forced exhalation
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shortest distance between 2 objects that are seen as seperate entities
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R groups
variable groups of amino acids
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RNA polymerase
enzyme that catalyses the formation of phosphodiester bonds between rna nucleotides
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root hair cells
cells find behind the tip of a plant root
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root pressure
active pumping of minerals into the xylem by root cells
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organisms that acquire nutrients by absorption
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scanning electron
b eam of electrons is sent across the surface of a specimen and reflected electrons are focused to produce a 3d image
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secondary immune response
large quantities of correct antibodies produced the second time a pathogen is met
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selection pressure
factors that affect an organisms chance of survival
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selective toxicity
the ability to interfere with the metabolism of a pathogen without affecting host cell
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selectively permeable
plasma membrane with protein channels that allow specific substances to cross
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semi conservative replication
results in one strand old and one new strand
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sense strand
runs 5' to 3' and contains genetic code for protein
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sieve plates
area between cells of the phloem where the walls are perforated
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sieve tube elements
the main cells of the phloem
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simpsons index of diversity
a measure of biodiversity
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acquire assimilates to supply metabolic needs: roots, fruits
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triggers contraction of the heart
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smooth ER
lacking ribosomes; site of lipid and carbohydrate synthesis
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regions that produce assimilates
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specific immunity
system remembers an antigen
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small openings along the thorax that open and close to control air moving in and out
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stem cells
undifferentiated cells with the potential to differentiate into any type of cell
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fluid interior of chloroplasts
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students T test
statistical test used to compare the means of data
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a subtance used by another process
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the progressive replacement of one dominant type of species by another
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the continuous cytoplasm of living plant cells connected by the plasmodesmata
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atria contract, followed by vetricles forcing blood out of the right side to the lungs
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t helper cells
t lymphocytes with receptors on surface whcih bind to antigens and produce interleukins
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T killer cells
destroy pathogens with perforin
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T lymphocytes
mature in the thymus gland and stimulate B lymphocytes
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T memory cells
lives a long time
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T regulator cells
supress and control the immune system
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a fast heart rhythm over 100 BPM
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taxonomic group
the hierarchical groups of classification: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus species
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chromosomes assemble at the poles and nuclear envelope reforms
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tertiary structure
further folding of the secondary structure involving interactions between R groups
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tidal volume
the volume of air that moves in and out of the lungs with each resting breath
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a collection of differentiated cells that have a specialised function or functions in an organism
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membrane forming a vacuole in a plant cell
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total lung capacity
the sum of the vital capacity and the residual volume
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can differentiate into any type of cell
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the movement of organic solutes around a plant in the phloem
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a beam of electrons is passed through a specimen and focused to produce an image
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the loss of water vapour from the stems and leaves as a result of diffusion down a concentration gradient
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safe form of an antigen
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ventilation rate
tidal volume x breathing rate
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vital capacity
volume of air that can be breathed in when the strongest possible exhalation is followed by the deepest possible inhalation
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water potential
measure of the quantity of water compared to solutes measured in kPA
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plants with adaptations that enable them to survive in dry habitats
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carries water and minerals from roots
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initial diploid cell formed when two gametes are joined by means of sexual reproduction
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Card 2


The energy required to initiate a reaction


Activation energy

Card 3


area of an enzyme with a shape complementary to a specific substrate


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Card 4


movement of particles across a plasma membrane against a concentration gradient.


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Card 5


a nucleotide composed of a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar and 2 phosphates


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