Biology Communicable Diseases

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How do bacteria make us feel ill?
Once inside the body, they release poisons or toxins
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How do viruses damage cells?
The virus reproduces, and the virus copies fill the whole host cell and burst it open.
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Describe how the non specific defence systems of the stomach works
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Describe how the non specific defence systems of the skin works
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Describe how the non specific defence systems of the trachea and bronchi works
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Describe how the non specific defence systems of the nose works
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Describe how WBCs prevent infection by ingesting microorganisms
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Describe how WBCs prevent infection by producing antibodies
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Describe how WBCs prevent infection by producing antitoxins
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Explain how pathogens spread in the air
When an infected person sneezes, droplets containing viruses pass into the air and may be breathed in by other people.
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Explain how pathogens spread in water
Waterborne diseases live in water and can infect organisms that come in contact
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Explain how pathogens spread through direct contact
infections spread when disease-causing microorganisms pass from the infected person to the healthy person via direct physical contact with blood or body fluids.
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Name the 4 groups of pathogens
Bacteria, Fungi, Viruses, Protists
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Describe the characteristics of salmonella, how it's spread and how it's treated
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Describe the characteristics of gonorrhoea, how it's spread and how it's treated
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Describe how rose black spot affects plant growth
The disease causes dark spots or irregular brown or black blotches on both leaf surfaces. Leaves then turn yellow and drop prematurely, resulting in weakened plants.
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Describe how malaria is spread
Usually, people get malaria by being bitten by an infective female Anopheles mosquito. malaria can also be transmitted through blood transfusion, organ transplant, or the shared use of needles or syringes contaminated with blood.
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What are the symptoms of malaria?
Symptoms of malaria include fever and flu-like illness, including shaking chills, headache, muscle aches, and tiredness.
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How is the spread of malaria controlled?
Informing people of risks, using insect repellent, take malaria prevention tablets and get early diagnosis
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Describe the characteristics of HIV, how it's spread and how it's treated
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Describe the characteristics of Measles, how it's spread and how it's treated
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Describe the characteristics of TMV, how it's spread and how it's treated
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Define Vaccination
Treatment with a vaccine to produce immunity against a disease
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Define Antigens
A toxin or other foreign substance which induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.
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Define Antibody
A blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with substances which the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood.
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Define Herd Immunity
The resistance to the spread of a contagious disease within a population that results if a sufficiently high proportion of individuals are immune to the disease, especially through vaccination.
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Define Painkiller
A drug or a medicine for relieving pain.
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Explain how a vaccination works. Use the words inactive, pathogens, white blood cells, antibodies, response in your answer.
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What can antibiotics treat? What are resistant strains of bacteria eg MRSA?
Antibiotics kill bacteria, not viruses. Over time, bacteria can become resistant to certain antibiotics. These survive and reproduce, creating more bacteria that are not affected by the antibiotic.
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Why is it difficult to develop drugs that kill viruses?
Because viruses live and reproduce inside cells. It is difficult to develop drugs that kill viruses without also damaging the body’s tissues.
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How are new drugs discovered and synthesised?
Traditionally, drugs were extracted form plants and microorganisms, but most new drugs are synthesised by chemists for mass production, although chemicals may still be extracted from plants to make the drug.
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What is the purpose of double-blind trials?
They account for the placebo affect, meaning psychological affects are eradicated
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What is a double-blind trial?
Neither the doctors or the patients know who has been given a placebo until the trial is completed
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What do new drugs need to be tested for?
Efficacy - Does it do it's job? Toxicity - Is it toxic? Dosage size - How much to give
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How was penicillin discovered?
In 1928, while studying influenza, Fleming noticed that mould had developed accidentally on a set of culture dishes being used to grow the staphylococci germ. The mould had created a bacteria-free circle around itself.
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Which medicine is made from Willow?
Aspirin - used for pain relief and anti-clotting
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Which medicine is made from Foxgloves?
Digitalis - used to treat arrhythmia (a group of conditions where the heartbeat is irregular, too slow, or too fast.)
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Outline the steps involved in drug trials.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How do viruses damage cells?

Back

The virus reproduces, and the virus copies fill the whole host cell and burst it open.

Card 3

Front

Describe how the non specific defence systems of the stomach works

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe how the non specific defence systems of the skin works

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe how the non specific defence systems of the trachea and bronchi works

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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