Biology- Cells and organisation

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  • Created by: Kitsune
  • Created on: 02-07-16 07:33
Define cell
The smallest unit of a living organism capable of independent functions and produced from a parent cell
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Define tissue
A group of cells with similar structures working together to perform specific functions
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Define organ
A group of tissues working to perform specific functions
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Define organ system
A group of organs with related functions working to perform body functions
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To what do animal cell features relate to?
Heterotrophic nutrition and high metabolic activity
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To what do plant cell features relate to?
Autotrophic nutrition
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Plant and animal cells have common features which relate to what?
Maintaining the characteristics of life
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Why are plant and animal cells different?
Different lifestyle and different methods of nutrition
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What does the absence of a cell wall mean for animal cells?
They are very irregular in shape
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Why are animal cells small?
The amount of cytoplasm that can be controlled by the uncle is limited
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What does the presence of a cell wall mean for plant cells?
They are regular in shape
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Why are plant cells large?
Because of the vacuole
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What are the features of an animal cell?
Cytoplasm, cell surface membrane, secretory vesicles, vacuoles, nucleus
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What do the secretory vesicles do?
They contain cell products such as hormones or enzymes
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Why is the cytoplasm of an animal cell denser?
More organelles and more dissolved substances
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Talk about vacuoles in animal cells
They are small and temporary. They can be involved with digestion or with excretion.
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What is glycogen in animal cells?
Storage form of carbohydrates
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What does the nucleus do?
It contains genetic material which makes up genes on the chromosomes and controls all the activities in the cell
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Where are the ribosomes?
On the rough endoplasmic reticulum
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What does the cell surface membrane do?
It controls the entry and exit of dissolved substances and separates the cell from its surroundings
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Where do chemical reactions go on in cells?
In organelles
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Where does aerobic respiration occur?
In mitochondria
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What do chloroplasts do?
They contain the pigment chlorophyll and the enzymes for production of glucose by photosynthesis
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What are the features of plant cells?
Cell surface membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, cellulose cell wall, large permanent vacuole, chloroplasts
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What does the large permanent vacuole do?
Contains water which is necessary to provide turgor pressure and may store ions and molecules
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What is starch in plant cells?
A storage form of carbohydrates
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What does the cellulose cell wall do?
Provides structural support, protects against damage caused by intake of water
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Is the cell wall permeable?
Freely permeable
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What do all cells, except prokaryotes, have?
Mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum
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Why do some cells require a lot of mitochondria?
They have high metabolic rates
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How to find the actual length of a cell?
Measured length divided by magnification
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What is the structure of a ciliated cell and how does it relate to its function?
Layer of tiny hairs=> movies mucus in trachea and bronchi
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What is the structure of a root hair cell and how does it relate to its function?
Long root=> absorption of minerals and water
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What is the structure of a xylem vessel cell and how does it relate to its function?
Lignin, no cytoplasm=> transports water and supports the plant
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What is the structure of a palisade mesophyll cell and how does it relate to its function?
Many chloroplasts=> photosynthesis
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What is the structure of a motor nerve cell and how does it relate to its function?
Axon, fatty sheath, branched endings=> conduction of nerve impulses
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What is the structure of a red blood cell and how does it relate to its function?
No nucleus, filled with haemoglobin, flexible=> transport of oxygen
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What is the structure of a sperm cell and how does it relate to its function?
Flagela, many mitochondria, enzymes on the acrosome=> reproduction
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Card 2

Front

Define tissue

Back

A group of cells with similar structures working together to perform specific functions

Card 3

Front

Define organ

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Define organ system

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

To what do animal cell features relate to?

Back

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