Biology-B1+B2-The Lungs+Exchange surfaces

  • Created by: tonisha_
  • Created on: 28-03-22 19:03
The lungs are in the what?
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What is the thorax?
the top part of our body
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What are the lungs surrounded by?
pleural membranes
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What are the pleural membranes and its function?
they are a thin lining around the lungs filled with fluid that reduces friction between the lungs and the chest walls
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What two things are the lungs then protected by?
intercoastal muscles
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The air passes into the lungs through a tube called what?
the trachea
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What is an adaptation of the trachea?
they have rings of cartilage which prevent it from collapsing when inhaling
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What does the trachea then split into?
two smaller tubes called bronchi
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Further into the lungs, each bronchi subdivides into what?
many smaller tubes called bronchioles
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What do bronchioles have on their ends?
tiny air sacs called alveoli
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The alveoli is the?
site of gas exchange
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An alveolus is surrounded by a network of?
network of blood capillaries
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Oxygen from the _____ (____ concentration) diffuses into the ________ (________ concentration).
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What are the four main adaptations of the alveoli?
large surface area
thin walls
moist walls
good blood supply
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How is this beneficial?
due to millions of alveoli in the lungs, this means more oxygen can be absorbed quicker
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Alveoli have very thin walls.
How is this beneficial?
it provides a shorter diffusion path
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Alveoli have a very good blood supply .
How is this beneficial?
it maintains the steep concentration gradient
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Alveoli have moist walls.
How is this beneficial?
the gases dissolve more easily
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What is something else which also increases the rate of diffusion?
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How does breathing increase the rate of diffusion?
it brings in fresh oxygen into the alveoli and takes away the carbon dioxide
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This makes the concentration gradient _______ for these gases
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What is breathing rate calculated in?
breaths per minute
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How do you calculate the breathing rate?
breaths per min= number of breaths / number of minutes
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The inside of the small intestines is covered with what?
millions of villi
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These are?
finger like structures
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This increases?
surface area
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So that _____ _____ is ______ much quicker into the blood?
digested food is absorbed much quicker
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This is because they have only a _____ layer of ______ ____?
a single layer of surface cells
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Very good?
blood supply
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What two other things are adapted for gas exchange?
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What diffuses in and a leaf?
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One way this is effective is because leaves contain little holes called?
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underneath the leaf
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What two things diffuse out the stomata?
water vapour
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The size of the stomata is controlled by?
guard cells
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If it is night or plant is losing too much water what will happen?
guard cells close stomata otherwise plant will wilt
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What else is there inside the leaf?
lots of air spaces
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This makes it easier for?
CO2 to diffuse through
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Fish get their oxygen from?
the water
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The water enters the fish through its?
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And flows over the?
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As this happens, the oxygen in the water ?
diffuses into the blood
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The blood is in?
the gills
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This blood will become?
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And be returned?
to the body
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The CO2 from the blood will?
diffuse into the water
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Each gill is made of lots of?
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This gives the gills a large?
surface area
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They also have a thin?
membrane to provide a shorter diffusion path
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They also have a good supply of?
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To maintain?
high conc gradient
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is the thorax?


the top part of our body

Card 3


What are the lungs surrounded by?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are the pleural membranes and its function?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What two things are the lungs then protected by?


Preview of the front of card 5
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